Ancient Celts: Anglo-Saxon Invasion of Britain DOCUMENTARY

čas přidán 6. 09. 2021
🎮 Play Humankind Today:
The Kings and Generals animated historical documentary series on the ancient civilizations and Ancient Celts continue with a video describing Sub-Roman Britain and the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the island. In this video, we will focus on how the British islands fared after the Roman Empire left the island.
Ancient Origins of the Celts: • Ancient Origins o...
Ancient Celtic Armies: Invasion of Rome and Greece: • Ancient Celtic Ar...
How Rome Conquered the Ancient Celts: • How Rome Conquere...
Last Stand of Free Celts: Struggle Against the Roman Empire - • Last Stand of Fre...
Caesar in Gaul: • Caesar in Gaul - ...
How Rome Conquered Greece: • How Rome Conquere...
Did the Trojan War Really Happen: • Did the Trojan Wa...
Demosthenes: • Demosthenes: Grea...
Ancient Greek Politics and Diplomacy: • Ancient Greek Sta...
Pyrrhic Wars: • Pyrrhus and Pyrrh...
Ancient Macedonia before Alexander the Great and Philip II: • Ancient Macedonia...
Diplomatic Genius of Philip of Macedon: • Diplomatic Genius...
Etruscans: • Etruscans: Italia...
Bosporan Kingdom: • Bosporan Kingdom ...
Ancient Greek State in Bactria: • Ancient Greek Sta...
The Greco-Chinese War Over the Heavenly Horses: • The Greco-Chinese...
Ancient Greek Kingdom in India: • Ancient Greek Kin...
Ghaznavids: • Ghaznavids: From ...
Huns: • Huns: The Origin
White Huns: • White Huns: Rise ...
Gokturks: • Gokturk Empire - ...
Khazars: • Khazars: History ...
Yuezhi: • Yuezhi Migration ...
Seljuks: • Rise of the Selju...
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The video was made by Arb Paninken, while the script was developed by Leo Stone. This video was narrated by Officially Devin ( / @offydgg & / @gameworldnarratives )
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#Documentary #Celts #AncientCivilizations

Komentáře: 3 471

  • In Humankind you can add Celts to your unique civilization. Humankind is a very fun game, get it here: Our series on the Ancient Celts is now done, but there will be a series on the Medieval Celts in the future and we will release a fleshed out feature-length episode on the Ancient Celts in the next few months

    • Thanks for the video.

    • I am 10 percent Anglo Saxon

    • Man how long is that pacific war i cant wait to watch how the US points by points score by score teritory to teritory knock the japanese from the pacific

    • About you make a documentary on King Cnut

    • Search for the Kingdom of Sheba Or the kingdom of Himyar who ruled the Arabian Peninsula before Islam

  • Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain as Germanic, Thor-worshipping pagan warriors, and then Christianized. Only to be invaded three centuries later, by Germanic, Thor-worshipping pagan warriors.

    • So as to have a chance to amend their errors and embrace the true gods.

    • What's your point here?

    • @John Best karma be funny 😂

    • @John Best I think his point is that cultural change and assimilation happens. His other point might be that it's sort of poetic, and that History rhymes.

    • @ZubiForce who then were preceded to be beaten by the christian King Alfred the great and then crushed by his ancestors

  • This how England became Germanic.Between the Celts,Romans,Germanic Tribes,Vikings,and lastly the Normans you have modern English.What a history indeed!

    • @glitchyikes how ?

    • @damouno P. They weren't slaves but Roman citizens who chose to settle in Britain. As they chose to settle in other parts of the empire. Black slavery is an invention of the 19th Century, before that, slavery wasn't defined by race. And the Ottomans famously took slaves of all ethnicities, including Turkish ones, since the foundation of their state.

    • @damouno P. No.

    • YES ! Admittedly a minute amount but it is there hehe

  • I'm loving the post-apocalyptic vibe of the dark ages, so damn interesting especially the events that went down in Britain. The audio, visuals, and research is so well done here. I can't express enough how much I appreciate the hard work put in to achieve these results.

    • From three centuries of peace and decadence, to hovels and invasion

    • I mean the empire that controls the economy in the area being destroyed by barbarians could probably count as at least a small apocalypse.

    • @Jon Baxter I mean... I'd argue on the peace and decadence part. Peace and decadence only for the roman citizenry, and the few non-romans who were elevated to citizens. For the rest, you're being exploited to serve an Empire who's capital you will never see. It would be like if America occupied Vietnam and turned it into another american state, but didn't give local vietnamese the chance to vote a representative into Congress. The Celts would've been constantly fighting the Romans, so it's no wonder they pulled back.

    • It gets even more post-apocalyptic when you consider the volcanic winter that nearly ended humanity in the 6th century. So many civilizations humbled or obliterated by the handful of years that came after that. It’s also probably the inspiration for Ragnarok in Norse Myth.

  • The history of Britain is one of the most complex fascinating histories I have ever heard. Not many people realise just how complex it is and how that complexity plays into how Britain is governed today

    • if you really want your mind blown, look in to Germanic and Romance languages in English and how Romance words like "mansion" for the ruling class, describe the same thing as Gemanic words like "house" for the lower classes.

    • Apparently England was hit with a series of invasive waves, some were aggressive, some were accepted, beginning with the Romans, and they (Romans) were Germanics whom pushed into Italy, next the Vikings, Norsemen, both Germanics, followed by the Jutes, Angles, Saxons, Normans, all Germanics. The English had been, like the Irish and Welsh, largely of "Basque" lineage. But ... What you will notice is that the "Mainstream Academics" will use "early Hunter Gathers, followed by Farmers", they refer to the Basque as an isolated group, because they speak a language that has never been influenced by "Germanic" and they are a separate line, Rh(-), and their History literally states "We are from Atlantica", (the "Mainstream Academics" deem that myth, I deem the Mainstream Stories largely Myth, but that's a separate subject, I will make a statement at the end.) *Thus, the original English in Britain were originally Basque whom had DNA added from various immigrants, and at some point, likely after the Romans, Vikings, and Norsemen, and probably during the Angles and Saxon waves, the following took place:* (At some point during this era, *the English DNA was affected leaving the following:. Maternal DNA as expected , a continuum with Anglo-Saxon/Germanic influence, others as expected, and *the Paternal/Male DNA was "reduced to less than 2%",* this indicates that all Males, Adult, Adolescent, Children, and Babies, we're removed, aka an "Ethnic Cleansing", which can only mean they were sold into slavery or they were eradicated/killed.)* On this point I find it obvious in the absence of information that someone, removed all written records 9n the subject, the "Mainstream Academics" mention it and make lightly of it, but never elaborate on what happened and when. Now, the British and the Germans are anal about Record Keeping, thus I can only expect that the Royal Family had the records expunged, likely during WWI, when they changed their name to *"Windsor from Saxe Coburg Gotha".* This is my suspicion, so don't quote it as fact, but time will reveal the facts. DNA studies show the era and other details, but I haven't been able to get access to it, I'm thinking it would be an "in person + University Credentials + a particular Gov Authorization" required to get the information. It will eventually get put on the Internet. I am amazed at the lack of interest by the British Public, or they may not know anything about the actual %. I'm not British, but I am Irish of Basque origin, my lineage is from Counties Kerry and Cork, and I was born in the USA, Chicago. ___________________________ "Mainstream Academia particularly Archaeologists" use "a 19th Century Theory based Paradigm and Linear Timeline". This stands in opposition to the Standards of "Science and Research" which forbids using a Theory as Fact. Many 9f them behave quite Dogmatic about the subject. The entire subject is most unsettling, as my degrees involved a great deal 9f emphasis on Research, and my Advisor, PhD and Head of the Department of Sociology was most adamant about the *"Standards of Science and Research"* (Sociologists are the Research hounds, the entire subject is always centered around research, studies, statistics, and data. We are the go to experts that Marketing, Advertising, and other Sciences employ when they want Accurate Data and Findings. My degrees are in Sociology, History, and Journalism, obviously I've done a few hours in Libraries, Classrooms, and on-line, searching. "Authentic Academics" follow the "Standards of Science and Research" and a strict "Code of Ethics". This subject to will find resolution, due to the works in Genetic/DNA Studies and Quantum Physics, Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Mechanics. Findings already exist to sufficiently set aside the "Theory, relative to Modern Humans", it just hasn't been discussed inview 9f the Public. (We need a Free Press) But you can book on it, it will set aside the "Darwinian Model for Modern Humans" and the "All Out of Africa Theory" as well. Both are 8naccurate. You can Quote me on that. Beth Sociologist/Behavioralist Historian

    • @Beth Bartlett Yes I am still recovering from all this mayhem

    • And from Britain, the modern world at large. The smallest island and least among all peoples, became the seat of one of the largest empire's the world has ever known, an empire that was not conquered, but managed to end more or less on its own terms, forming one of, still, the most prolific and advanced cultures to ever exist. The sun of the English speaking world is undoubtedly setting these days, but what cannot be denied is the impact on humanity this one tiny island had.

  • I’m Welsh and I love our history, we haven’t had it easy at all, but we are still such a passionate country to our Celtic traditions.

    • What traditions are these? Not being confrontational but i'm a south walian myself and I don't see much cultural difference.

    • @Daniel Brown Sorry should have used the word heritage.

    • @Daniel Brown Perhaps you'd be more aware if you'd come from a Welsh speaking background?

    • @RFK would've been A ok That's why the Brits had the largest Empire the world has ever seen. The best of Indo European genius. Latin dead and gone, nobody ever wanted a true return of the Roman Empire after they tasted Germanic ideas of real liberty. It didn't return, and no attempt was made to restore it. It died for good reason.

  • Welshman here, always makes me sad yet proud to see the triumph and struggles of my people. 'Lloegr' (the land that was lost) is still our word for England today. As he says, our story goes on. Glad to see Welsh was the most learned language in the UK during lockdown on Duolingo!

    • And the number of speakers is rising in Wales. Also Cornish was revived as well amd is spoken by a handfull of people again.

    • Indeed and the English called all the Celts "Welsh" I believe. Either way, you were not strong enough to hold on to the land and it was conquered. In this time period, might is right and has been English for 1600 years now.

    • Are you on krak? It doesn’t mean “the land that was lost”.

    • @Mr. Afrikaans Ydy ma fe y twpsyn! Do some research mate

    • @Welsh Partisannever knew why the Welsh hated us so much 🤣now I know 🤣

  • Just a minor correction, at 11:28 you say that Angles, Jutes and Saxons spoke north germanic languages. This is a common mistake but in reality the Saxons, Angles and Jutes (+ the Frisians which were also a major contribution to the anglo-saxon migration) are classified as speaking "ingvaeonic" languages, aka north sea germanic, which is grouped in west germanic and not in north germanic. The Jutes are an interesting bunch, initially they may have spoken a transition dialect between west and north germanic. However, the Jutes in England spoke a dialect mostly related to Frisian. This is not so surprising when you consider that Frisians lived right across the channel in Flanders and the Dutch coast. In fact, many Jutes may have left Jutland around 200 CE when the Danes invaded, going through Angle, Saxon and eventually Frisian territrory before partaking in the conquest of Britain.

    • Plus Frisians lived in western Denmark anyway at least some Fishing villages.

    • And in Fryslân we're still ingvaeonically going strong ! ☺️

    • @irTaeke Same with the speakers of low saxon in North Germany & Nederland :)

    • In terms of genetics the Frisians seem to be the largest contributer to modern English compaired to any other group. Of coarse the difference between them and the other germanic groups that arrived at that time is almost non-existant.

    • @wow fly Yes! I am an English person who comes from the Black Country in the West Midlands.We speak the purest form of North Germanic Languages in the country.We were left alone from Norman -French influence because of the Geography very inacsessable.I studied and lived in West Germany on the north sea coast near to Bremerhaven for 12 years and made Friends with people who spoke Platt Deutsch.I agree that Friesans contributed as this is the easiest language to learn as an Englishman

  • There is a really interesting old english poem called “the ruin” from the 8th or 9th century which has some interesting reflections on Roman ruins in England. Worth a read.

    • Fall of Civilizations Podcast made a very interesting episode about it right here on CS-tv.

    • @FritsGerlich07 lol yes that’s where I learned about it, excellent channel.

    • @FritsGerlich07 Link, please? Cant find it

    • Yes, I found the poem and it is interesting that it refers to historical facts and knowledge of the Romano-Britons. The poet recalls heated villas, fine clothes and wealth.

    • @Gordon Bryce Perhaps, but to the average Briton, a Villa like that wouldn’t have been just as much of a dream before and after the fall of Rome

  • Henry the VII used an old prophecy that Celts would take back the throne of England to legitimize his claim amongst his home Welsh lords (this along with the fact that he was the last male to carry the lancastrian claim ). That is why he named his first born Arthur.

    • And what happened then?

    • @Swapan Zameen The Tudor Golden Age happened

    • And then Prince Arthur died leaving Henry VII's other son to be the heir to the throne. That's how good ol' Henry VIII became King of England.

    • @Brasidas Polemarchos He was protector of the Church, he would never act irresponsibly.

  • The Celts continue to be some of my favorite people to study in history. I would love to time travel and see what their culture was like in Central Europe. We have a cd of Celtic lullabies in our collection. The Welsh songs are truly entrancing. I am also very fond of the flowing lines of what I believe is Celtic influenced art.

  • As someone with both Celtic and Saxon ancestry this was very interesting to watch. I’ve been lately learning more about the past of England to try and make sense of it all. What a fascinating history.

    • I just found out I’m 22% England & Northwestern Europe very confusing lol

    • Let me guess - you’re both American?

    • @RJ American isn’t a nationality

    • @RJ Is that a problem?

    • @SpruceGoose not at all mate - I love the yanks. It just tends to be Americans who describe themselves as 22% *something* - just seems foreign to the rest of the world! No malice intended ✌️

  • Aside from King Arthurs stories and legends and also his probable real timeline , the period of Sub Roman Britain meaning 5th to 8th century AD is in my opinion one of the most interesting,mysterious and fascinating periods of human history. Celto-Roman cultures with a mix of Celtic,Latin and Abrahamic religions meet,fight or trade with Gemanic ones and also each other.

  • These are the lesser-known chapters of history that this channel excels at!

    • It’s a shame this is lesser known, this is the early origin of the most expansive empire in history

    • No, the Anglo-Saxon and jute invasion of England is quite popular and important part of British history, it's less written and romanticized about, in comparison to the Danelaw 2 centuries later and the Norman and Norwegian invasions in 1066 though. Mainly because the course of events were migratory instead of epic battles being written about this era.

    • @Johnson very true n later Norman invasion as well

    • @Asad Khan The Norman Conquest was completed in 1066. There was no "later" conquest than this.

    • @Celt of Canaan Esurix wrong, that title belongs to the mongols which this channels covers on a lot.

  • As one who was in high school honors history (precursor to advanced placement) more than 50 years ago I appreciate being able to further expand upon what I learned back then. I appreciate the succinct detail presented here.

  • This is one of the subjects I've most wanted a video for. It's so interesting to me that the Anglo-Saxons - who were invaded by the Vikings - were once in a similar position to the Vikings who invaded them... The mixing is so interesting. And it's interesting how all of this led to a lack of record keeping which led to such a mysterious time which allowed legends and myths to arise... So cool all the way around.

  • Thomas Jefferson proposed that one side of the seal of the United States have Hengist and Horsa saying: “the Saxon chiefs from whom we claim the honor of being descended, and whose political principles and form of government we assumed.” The beauty of history is how deeply it is intertwined, sometimes we forget that it was a series of related steps that leads to now-even as obvious as it seems.

    • I imagine Hengest and Horsa laughing in heaven knowing they're still being talked about thousands of years later

    • The US President is elected through a democratic process, the Anglo-Saxons were not democratic by any means! They had a monarchical system of governance, so I don't know what Jefferson was on about there.

    • @Lemon Yes, exaggerate some more why don't you?

    • @Brasidas Polemarchos The problem is you only see our unique system of governance and forget there is a people behind it that made all of this work, for us it's about understanding who we are and where we come from, we American's did not spring from the grass of the earth- We came from England, from Germany and Scandinavia, later on Celts and Latins would be allowed in but America is in its truest essence a Germanic Nation.

  • Your content quality continues to improve. I've begun to seriously enjoy these sorts of stories over the more strictly battle focused ones (those are still great of course!). Can't wait to see what you make next!

  • The ships going to the north of Spain have reminded me of strange names in Spanish Celtic mythology: Breogan, the sons of Mil, Bretoña (Lugo), Brigantia, Maelog / Mailoc, Bishop Mailoc of Britonia, etc. After the Goths there was no more memory.

    • It goes the opposite way too, in Gaelic traditions it was maintained that the Gaels came to Ireland from Northern Spain.

    • @malleableconcrete I guess locals in Cantabria were not very welcoming xD so they turned back

    • "Brigantia" is very interesting as the predominant Celtic British tribe in what is now northern England was the "Brigantes" .... Also the Britons are supposed to be descended from the Basque people of northern Spain

    • @malleableconcrete They didn't - the Gaels came from Gaul. Irish DNA is North European.

    • Its the British who are connected to Spain - Anatolian farmers re-colonised Britain, about 1000BC.

  • Love how the britons called the anglo saxons barbaric pagans, and those same barbaric pagans would say the same thing to the danish vikings

    • Yet the Britons were very much barbaric pagans themselves when the Romans Arrived in Britain & the Roman Empire considered the Celts "Barbarians".

    • No joke. The Anglo-Saxons adopted the word barbarian (probably from the welsh or from reading classical Roman texts) and started using it to mean pagan Danes. For instance, document dated 872 refers to “the very pressing affliction and immense tribute of the barbarians, in the same year when the pagans stayed in London.”

    • I'm surprised that England's favourite mythical hero is actually Welsh.

    • and then they named the Britons, "Welsh" which means foreigner.

  • Interestingly, Emrys (Welsh for Ambrosius) is one of the names of Merlin, part of whose name seems to have been inspired by Ambrosius Aurelianus!

    • See the books The Crystal Cave, The Hollow Hills, The Last Enchantment. Trilogy. A young boy, (Merlin), son of Welsh princess but unknown father. Court held in old Roman estate, looked down on by the Ruler. Keeps his ear to the ground/low profile. Kidnapped taken to Brittany. Meets A. Aurelianus in his camp. (His father). The crystal cave gives him the sight. Glimpses of the old ones (the romano/britons) hiding in the hills. By Mary Stewart,Author who draws on many sources woven together. I read them 45 yrs ago gets 90%+ reviews. Realism n spirituality. Igraine, Arthur, Uther Pendragon. Morgana.

    • indeed some legends ascribe Merlin's prediction of Vortigern's fall to Ambrosius. I suppose the figure of Merlin is a composite of the Welsh Myrrdin and Ambrosius Aurelianus. Fascinating stuff

  • I really wish they would do more videos going in depth about welsh and cornish history because the illustrations they do are great and it's hard to find historical illustrations about the Britons in the early medieval period

  • Even though I technically knew most of this already, your clear and concise summary helped tie it all together - and, as a result, I feel like I understand the whole topic a lot better. Thank you!

  • This is so beautiful. Fantastic animation, historically accurate and super entertaining. Thank you so much!

  • Could you do an in-depth description of the history of old Ireland? As an Irishman myself, a video in this style about this era would be super interesting.

  • This is definitely like when the best student gets the most interesting topic for their presentation. I love that Kings and Generals is covering the Anglo-Saxons!!

    • @احمد -ahmed cant find who asked.

    • @احمد -ahmed *Germanic NOT German! Even Old English was very different from what the people who eventually became Germans were speaking.

    • Love me some Arthur

    • @احمد -ahmed And Latin

    • Honestly someone had to do it it’s scattered in library’s alone lol

  • Superb overview generally! I'm always cautious about documentary work and downright hesitant to give fiction a shake concerning this period, but this is well done. Cheers!

  • I’m a Swede, in love with this era of history, from the fall of Rome to the Vendel era up here north. I would be super happy seeing the Vendel era being covered or maybe. Legendary battle, such as Bråvalla or Sigurd Ringhs fights against the Curonians or the Swedo-Geatic wars!

    • they could do one on the Geats next. Beowulf hype when?

    • @Jon Baxter yes I agree with you 100%, the Vendel era holds so much Swedish history that no one really cares about sadly

    • Marko Milivojević Rust Yeah, they did paint their sheilds black to scare enemies.

    • It’s crazy that Swedes did so many manly things snd not it’s a make feminist country

    • @Greg Kosinski femo-muslim*

  • Native Irish Gaelic Speaker here! (Cainteoir Dúchas Gaeilge) yes, proud to say we still exist..and I’t fills me with pride to say that our ancient language, despite all efforts to wipe it still being spoken on this island❤️ The 2 festivals mentioned at 7:45 ar Bealtaine and Samhain, pronounced (Byawl-tena & sawin). The land of the fairies = Tír na nÓg (teer na Nowg) the land of Eternal Youth - a mythical place where everyone stays young. Love this video. Looking forward to hopefully seeing a few videos on ancient Ireland soon:). An amazing period of history. Go raibh maith agaibh!! (Thank you)

    • What are you doing here? Get up there as top comment.


    • Thank the Gods you shared how to pronounce those lad... It drove Me nuts to hear it in video the "English" way. Slainte.

    • Maith an fear Dónall! I'm always sympathetic to people struggling with the pronunciations - even after 14 years of Irish education I'm inclined to butcher stuff! :)

    • @Conor Lane Aye, I do the same from time to time... Still ;)

  • *Walhaz is such an interesting word. It's "foreigner" for germanics, but it ended up meaning "Roman" and "(romanized) Celt" in many instances. Welsh are named after this one, but so are the Romance-speakers in Switzerland (Welschland, Welschwiitz), and in Tyrol the germans call italians "Welsch"; Walloons are romance speakers (of a significant, albeit I doubt complete, romano-celtic origin) in Belgium... Rumenians are called Vlachs, and Poles call us Italians "Włochy". I am sure there are many, many others. Even the Walnut plant. Slavs, on their turn, called the germanics "mute ones", but that's another story...

    • The term Slavs came from word Slowo which means "word" so Slavs or slavonic means people of common tounge. Thats why the first big group of people Slavs do not assimilate where Germanic people in moderb day Germany. In Slavic the word for Germany/Germans is 'Niemcy' which means mute or people who dont understood common tounge ;)

    • @Kosa In Hungarian too Germany is sill called Németország and Italy is Olaszország (ólah being etymology deriving from the word vlach). Slovenians uses to be called Vend (from Wend which he Germans called Sorbians, Poles etc...) And Slovaks were called Tót. Also Poland is called Lengyelország (I believe this comes from Lechia or some old Polish tribe)

    • @Kosa Proto-Slav: "*DZIEN *DOBRY" Proto-Germanic: *stares* Proto-Slav: "These axe-wielding people are obviously very polite, therefore the only plausible conclusion for their lack of verbal response is that they are mute and deaf - also none of my descendants will ever need to verify my inference."

    • Linquistic are very interasting

    • And yet the real name for the ‘Welsh’ is Cymry meaning ‘fellow countryman’. A word Originating from the Far East

  • loved the production on this. the depiction of Celtic Britain falling to the jutes, angles and saxons gave a real sense of the horror of a land falling to invading forces, and as an Englishman, an internal conflict that these are in fact my ancestors. but the change of tone and lifted music somewhow gave me a realisation that in fact cultures integrated in with each other a lot more than we think, and all of our shared history is there to see.

  • "Your ancestors shed their blood conquering this land, one day you will have to do the same" - Uhtred son of Uhtred.

    • They fought enemies they once were like, how mind boggling

    • Destiny is all

    • @Peter Kazzi that's what vikings do, they fight among themselves when they have nothing to do

    • Wait till he hears about the Normans, christianized North-men.


  • I personally love how you guys have been improving your story telling skills. Some of your previous videos put me off your channel for a while because they were a bit boring and seemed more about producing as much quantity as possible but now you are producing both quantity and quality witch is what i like to see. I enjoy binge watching your videos on the weekend with a nice drink. NOTICE ME SEMPAI! lol :D

  • Cornwell in his Arthurian trilogy is an author who makes this perfect description of this Roman Celtic society, mixed and in the process of long decay of what was once the Roman Empire and the final remnants of a civilization that would be swallowed up in wars.

  • Been wanting this video for a long time and just didn't know it! To bad Tolkien never lived to see K&G. Amazing series guys. PS I have always heard that the Breton knights of later fame took some of their tactics from Alan migrants. Could we see a video exploring the veracity of this claim?

    • you speak of the alans mercenaries brought to brittany

  • Looking forward to the next chapter in this series. The syncretism in Ireland is a fascinating topic.

  • That is one hell of a send off for the Celts. You guys always show respect and the best side of the cultures you review.

    • A send off? Where are they going? 😊

  • Another one of those videos where script, art, and editing combine beautifully well.

    • Sub-roman britain has such romantic mysticism to it. I love it

    • His voice is horrible

  • That’s a great overview, bravo! A tip for pronouncing Welsh words: the stress is always on the penultimate syllable. So Gododdin is “Goh-DOÐ-in”, where the dd (Ð/ð/“eth”) is pronounced like the “th” in the English words “they” and “weather”. And if there’s only one syllable, like Hen in Yr Hen Ogledd, it’s often stressed, so “HAIRN” rather than “hen”. Looking forward to your future videos!

  • In French, "Bretons" means the people of Brittany, and it is the British whom we call "Britannique". "Bretagne" can mean either Brittany or Britain, because both were the country of the "Bretons". When they wanted to be precise, people would say "Grande Bretagne" - Great Britain. It is funny to think that name 'Armorica' disappeared because of this migration. On the other side of Gaul, 'Belgica' carried on across the centuries and is still recognizable today.

    • Whilst asterix books exist armorica will never disappear

    • 'Armorica' in my opinion sounds a lot like America if you ask me.

    • Armorica also included Normandy, it's not just another name for Brittany.

  • Brilliant video! As a Breton I hope you can save a bit of time to present the early middle ages of Brittany, the conflicts with the Frankish realms are really interesting!

  • Been subscribed to this channel since it first began, and I'm continually impressed with each video that has come out. Keep up the great work.

  • A very thorough and well produced video on a topic for which I've infrequently found good study material. I am really enjoying your channel lately

  • This was a masterpiece. Thanks for covering such a challenging and scant historical period, this was very well researched and produced. I learned an awful lot from this.

  • The amount of short docs you guys have is astounding. You guys work your butts off and I love your content!

  • The whole Cornish language thing now makes so much sense. These little facts and suggestions are why I appreciate this channel so much.

  • I love learning about early medieval Britain. My surname being descendant of minor Anglo-Saxon nobles just east of the St. Albans monastery. I feel a long yet distant connection to The Great Isle. Oddly enough my home U.S. state, Michigan, is almost the same size of Britain

    • @Felix Philippe Ah, you're one of those. Well all the best.

    • @Nuka Cheers mate. Sounds like you have an ancestral connection going back to Britain.

    • @Anglo-Saxon there is that and my mother's father is Scotish. He said that his family was given land by the MacDonalds of Glencoe after helping them escape or shelter them after the whole massacre conducted by the Cambells

  • It seems that you guys will leave no chapter of Roman and early modern age untouched...and it's a great thing for us

  • As a mix of both Celtic, Saxon and Scandinavian ancestry this video is fantastic!

  • just a quick side note, the Celtic months of ‘Samhain’ and ‘Bealtaine’ are not pronounced ‘Sam-Hane’ or ‘Bell-Tine’ but rather as ‘Sow-in’ and ‘Byowl-Tin-Ah’. hope this helps :)

    • Was looking for a comment such as this!!

    • This narrator literally has and will continue to be tasked to pronounce names from languages alive and dead, from native american to mongolian. Tis not a task to envy and at a certain point I think they probably accept inevitable failure.

    • Roads Were Meant for Journeys Irish never has been and never will be a phonetic language. that’s just the nature of the language and languages in general.

    • @alukuhito sounds wrong and silly to those who know the language.

    • @alukuhito Billy is your authority here? As opposed to those who still speak this living language? I hope someday you say it like that to someone who speaks the language.

  • This was a nice video but there are a few things that i believe you should have mentioned The early Anglo saxon/english kings were probably half celtic by their names which have celtic etymologies (Cerdric Adweala) and Brittany was probably already a brittonic settlement instead of becoming one after the saxon invasion

    • I think the theory that the House of Wessex is a native dynasty that became Anglicized is quite a popular if niche one and I'd love to see it discussed more.

  • Most suitable candidate for a historical Arthur is a little known figure called Arthwys ap Mor, the king of the Pennines and later Ebrauc (York). He lived in correct period (early 6th century), he had the right name and lineage and he was even present in the region where Goddodin was written but also where some inspirations for Arthurian characters lived, like Letan Luyddoc founder, basis for Lot, father of Gawain, Myrdin Wylt... Lleniauc of Elmet was his brother and likely inspiration for Lancelot while Lleniauc's son Gwallawc was likely inspiration for Galahad and reigned until 590s. Arthuis' grandson was Peredur widely acepted to have been inspiration for Percifal but check this, in genealogies Arthwys' wife was called GYVIR of Ireland. While it is not explicitly stated that Arthwys ap Mor and certain Morryd ap Mor were related, considering the later's son Morfryn was a ruler around Elmet , it is likely father of Arthwys and Morryd was one and the same Mor thus making them brothers. Conflict between Arthur and Mordred might easily have been some squabble between these two brothers. Some identify Camlann with Camboglanna near Hadrian's wall and this would make sense if Artwys and Morryd were northern rulers. Oldest genealogies correctly put certain Pabo post Prydain (father and the pillar of Britain) as uncle (rather than son) of this Arthwys. This mysterious figure could easily have been a nickname for none other than Aurelius Ambrosius, uncle of Arthur in mythology. Further pointing to this is the fact that grandson of this Pabo was none other than Cynan Garwyn, usually identified with AURELIUS Caninus mentioned by Gildas in 5th century following Roman nomenclature. Furthermore most of battles connected with Arthur prior to Badon like battle of Linuis and battle on river Glen can be more easily connected to northern sites. Even going by pure logic it is far more likely that in that period someone living in a major city like Eburacum once vital for Roman Britain would be more interested and invested into the fate of the isle and preservation of it's legacy as Britannia rather than someone from Cornwall an area which was never even romanised or properly integrated. Basically the only argument against Arthwys is the fact he isn't connected with places usually asigned with Arthurian tropes like Tintagel, Sollisbury, Bath, Badbury and so on. But after scratching a bit bellow surface a researcher can see that connections of most of these places to Arthur were made fairly late into the medieval times when Hen Ogledd, the old North was long gone and what remained of lineages of Hen Cole resettled to Wales where they preserved their traditions. Not to mention that Arthwys could have sometimes united in common cause with other Britons and marched from the north for major battles like Badon (though it is likely it also happened further north) Through ancient Welsh ideologies some semblance of the order of events and political landscape of post roman britain can be assembled beyond just broadest strokes. Even if they aren't accurate in their earliest segments they can show how even before Roman legions left with power vacuum being filled by powerfull Romano-British as well as Britonnic and Irish warlords in periferal Provinces like Britannia Prima (Wales and Cornwall) and Britannia Secunda (Northern England), how these then attempted to take Flavia Caesariensis and MAxima Caesariensis but also how situation slowly deteriorated (represented by lands of lineages like that of Hen Coel(Caelius or Agricola), Eudaf Hen (Octavius), Magnus Maximus, Cunedda and of course Vortigern slowly getting split into more parts by each succesive generation) while Saxons, Of this I could write for hours ;). Jutes and Angles kept coming. Still, situation was reversible until at least 550s or so. I think traditional dating of battle of Camlan and the end of Arthur's reign to 537 (mentioned in Annales Cambriae) is particularly interesting considering "worst year in human history" happened just a year prior, dimmed sun, great plague and depopulation could have caused enough upheaval. It was probably what spelled ultimate doom for Britons and post Roman urban culture. 560s sealed the fate of Britons in the south while in the North 580s and 590s were the effective end of the Old North both due to foreign invasion and internal squabbling. It would make Arthur or Arthwys story even more tragic as the last shine of the antiquity before depopulation happened. Furthermore if he is Arthwys then it's all even sadder considering his descendants including Peredur (Percival) and Gwrgi all died in battle of Arthuret where Myrddin (second half of Merlin inspiration) went mad. Even more interestingly through Arthuis's middle son Cunbelin who reigned further in the south around Caer Lerion and his son Cynwid who rulled in Cynwidion this lineage retreated into Wales and are ancestors of Tudors. All in all the name itself is what drew my attention to this Arthwys and I found most of this stuff online. There is also an interesting book about it called The Pennine Dragon, though IMO author starts out nicely but goes way too far. As for Camelot the likeliest inspiration for it must be Camulodunum. It isn't even relevant if Arthwys ever actually controlled it, he could have during some excursion to the south, but it's very hard to prove and more likelier that he didn't. In any case as Arthuis passed into legend as an ideal ruler of united Britain what better capitol for his kingdom could a bard find than a capital of once united Roman Britain which was Camulodunum.

  • An interesting summary that describes the broad details and changes well. What I would say is that, partly due to the paucity of accurate written records, we can tend to allow them to fill in the blanks with a description of invasion and conquest. This is unlikely to have been entirely the case: Gildas himself gives us clues that this might be so, even as he tells his tale of Hengist and Horsa. Apart from Gildas' distance from events in both time and place, his narrative does not correlate with what we see archaeologically around the Saxon Shore forts: evidence of regular trade a century prior to and at least one after the withdrawal of the legions, and local adoption of Germanic clothing and pottery, not only in settlements that can be identified as Anglo-Saxon, but in places that retain Romano-British identities. Add to this, as the video mentioned, evidence of continuation of features of Romano-British life well into the 600s even in the South East, and the continuation of the usage of Brythonic place names throughout the south (in particular rivers and hills). An interpretation of this could be that there was perhaps a smaller influx of peoples from Jutland and surrounding areas - either as mercenaries, invaders or a mixture of the two - who over time gained dominance over local Romano-British leadership, whilst the local populace for the most part remained and gradually adopted the accoutrements and language of the new ruling class, perhaps influenced by the styles and example of Germanic settlers who followed in the wake of the change in leadership. I hypothesise that, after a couple of centuries of cultural adoption and intermarriage, there were people of largely Romano-British heritage in Sussex who thought of their Saxon culture as their natural one and might even have come to believe that all of their community had come from over the sea. The further from the South East you travel, the more strongly this blending of two cultures becomes. The early rulers of the Gewisse (later to be known as the West Saxons) have Brythonic names. Little can be concluded from all of this, but it does suggest a fascinating glimpse into the transformation of Britannia into England: not quite invasions; not quite a population displacement and replacement; not quite peaceful settlement; not quite brutal conquest; but a little of all of them.

  • As a native Welsh speaker I can tell you Lloegr is still the modern name for England in Welsh. The word for an English person is Sais (singular) or Season (plural) literally meaning Saxon. Despite England's attempts to crush our culture and erase our language for centuries there is still 900,000 speakers of Cymraeg (Welsh) in Cymru (Wales) alone.

    • Dont forget the Welsh speakers miles away in Patagonia

    • Preserve your roots !

    • That's awesome! Greetings from England, preserve your culture the best you can!

    • This is indeed amazing to see cultural diversity and how history can be read through it. Don't keep hostile outlooks, or thoughts, or vibes about anyone in modern days, and get in touch, but always preserve your heritage! 🙏

  • Very interesting and even fascinating video. As a Belgian - the name is a reference to Gaelic tribes who lived here before the German invasions - for me it wa a surprise to learn that Brittany is...British from origin.

  • Lot of Frisians came over too in large numbers. They are often overlooked and lumped in with the Anglo-Saxons but much of the Midlands were settled by them.

    • I was wondering why they wouldn't come over as well. The Saxon part of the germanic coastline is small compared to the frisian or dutch. I thought maybe the Dutch were too nice lol

    • @22fordfx4 Frisians still exist. Do not call them Dutch. They fought for centuries to maintain their identity. They are part of the Anglo-Saxon, Jutish group.

    • @Stephen Chappell prompts me to wonder were the Angles and Frisii ever one before diverging and joining with the Saxons and Jutes

    • And we’ll continue to overlook them forever more as we love ignoring that fact. Keep you out in the cold where it’s Frisian

    • @George Lindley Dutch. Dutch. Dutch. Dutch.

  • Kings and Generals has quickly made it to my favorite youtube channel this year, the daily and quality content is astounding

  • If anyone wants a Story of Arthur actually during the Saxon invasions check out "The Winter King" by Bernard Cornwell. It's got shield walls, cults of Isis and Mithras, and other cool stuff.

  • Wonderful video it was a good one. I wonder if your going to do a video series on the Vikings and the lands they invaded? My compliments to all those who made this video a reality.

  • What an excellent analysis, with Linguistic evidence to back it and make it even more clear to the viewer! Well done!

  • Read "The Warlord Chronicles" by Bernard Cornwell. It details the most realistic depiction of Arthur I have ever read in fiction. A fantastic read, and the prequel to "The Saxon Stories".

  • Man, It is an incredible work!! Thank you for your videos. I have been searching my genealogic and I found some people from Britain, I didn't know much about, but was really incredible to see the variety of cultures. I found in my genealogic tree, Celtics, Britons and Germanic people like Goths, Saxons and etc. The most cool was found Beli Mawr in my genealogic tree 🤩

  • For all its faults, I give credit to the writing team of Bruckheimer's film "Arthur" for attempting to collate snippets from semi-realistic history in the production. I for one very much enjoyed the film for what it gave us, a mythical portrayal of exciting times and larger than life people, with some facts thrown in to hold it together. Also, thanks much for your Vids here Gents!

  • Bernard cornwell wrote a series about Arthur set in this time period, the warlord chronicles. They’re pretty good books, certainly entertaining and a cool perspective of these times.

  • That one migration here to the Northwestern Iberian Peninsula created a settlement and later a bishopric that was called Britonia, and there's still today a town named Bretoña there. Largest river here, that serves as frontier between Portugal and Spain in its last stretch, and called _Minho_ (PT) _Miño_ (ES), comes from the celtic _Mino_ , meaning "soft". Two of its tributaries are called _Deva_ , from the celtic goddess _Dewa_ . Although we cannot atribute the origin of the bagpipe to the Celts with certainty (there are bagpipes from Morocco to Turkey as well), fact is that there's a strong bagpipe tradition in the ancient Gallaecia, with varieties as _Minhota_ and _Trasmontana/Mirandesa_ in Portugal, and _Galega_ , _Sanabresa/Alistana_ in Spain.

    • There aren't enough documentaries about Celts in Spain and Portugal on CS-tv. It's fascinating that their culture still exists

    • Northwestern

    • @J absolutelly right, my mistake - since I'm from Trás-os-Montes, I'm used to say Northeastern (Portugal), hence the error.

  • Once again you've made an amazing history piece! Thanks for putting these out here. It's time I spend some money in your shop :) . However, at 12:47 you state "By 500 AD the Western half..." when you actually mean the Eastern Half of England.

  • 11:30 NorthSEA Germanic, I don’t mean to be nit-picky, but that’s a very important linguistic distinction, North Germanic includes only the descendants of Proto and Old Norse. Old English comes from Proto Northsea Germanic, which was a variety of West Germanic, closer to German and Dutch, but with some Norse influences

    • Oof :-D

    • yes

    • I respect the hell out of finding these tiny details, I support this!

    • "Uhm, ackshually" he said, pushing the glasses up his nose.

    • @The Final Well, that is a pretty important detail

  • As a Welsh person thank you for this video, very interesting. Also fun to hear you *try* to pronounce Welsh and other Celtic words 😂 10/10 content

  • It's important to remember that the reference to Arthur in the Gododdin is thought by most scholars to be a much later addendum. It could have been added in at any time between the 6th to C. 13th - 14th centuries when the tale was finally solidified into the form we have today.

  • Loved the episode, looking forward to the rest of this series

  • Just wanna say your videos have taught me so much and have been the basis for me to learn more on my own. Recently read up on what we know about the even earlier migrations. Ice-age Europeans crossing over Doggerland, Neolithic Iberian farmers, central European Beaker people, continental Celtic infusions from escaping Rome and eventually all the formerly Celtic people that came with Rome for the conquest of Albion, which leads up to this vid of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. Talking with my family about visiting ancient sites in the UK and Ireland all because these vids got me interested in my ancestry. Thanks!

  • I love these little known stories. Great job on this history!

  • "The greatest mistake the Celts ever made was to rough up a young and upcoming Rome" Grandad

    • Rome: and I took that personally

    • True

    • Or not doing their job correctly and destroying rome completly

    • @Shqiptar Katholik They sacked the city completley. They didn't know they would rise again

    • @Shqiptar Katholik that means they weren't as bad as Romans I guess. Carthage was, slaughtered, burned, raised to the ground and salted!

  • 'Fight bravely, and defend your are on your own now.' - Emperor Honorius to the peoples of Britain (410AD)

  • Love the videos history battles and wars are so interesting too learn about. Keep up the great works Kings and Generals

  • If you liked this video check out Bernard Cornwell's Warlord trilogy, its set in this time and tells a clearly fictional, if realistic, interpretation of the story of Arthur.

  • I really recommend doing the ancestry DNA test to anyone interested in this stuff. I’ve always known my Celtic heritage with mum being Irish and dad from Scottish but mainly English ancestry. But it was a surprise to see such a significant Danish percentage. Looks like the Viking’s left their stamp on the British gene pool after all!

    • Fyrdman - agreed. There are no Scandinavians in my family and I’ve tracked back to 1600s so I’m only assuming the Denmark percentage has come from some ancient Viking knocking up a Saxon woman 🤷🏻‍♀️

  • Strange how the Angles, Saxons, Jutes are seen as a different people than the Vikings. Jutes and Angles come from Denmark. The Saxons come from Northern Germany and literally bordered Angle territory. They worship an earlier form of the Norse Pantheon(which is why I refer to it as Germanic paganism). And they sailed to Britain to raid, trade and settle. They seem to truly be an earlier wave of Vikings.

  • Nice history, nice graphics, good job! But it would have been even nicer if you had included the Frisian (from N Netherlands) invasion as a subset of the Angle invasion, their apparent allies. Some believed leftovers of the Frisian invasion are the villages of Frizinghall in Bradford and Frieston in Lincolnshire. There are also reports of Franks among the Saxons, it is uncertain if they were Riparian(river Rhine) Franks (S Netherlands) or the Franks who had invaded and settled in N France and later produced Charlemagne. But i do not think there are any village names which might "prove" this. Still, Kudos on your good video!

  • So love it. I would love to see series on the Viking Kingdom of Jórvik... :D Influence on the Yorkshire accent and dialect. Amazing times, they were back then. Harald Hardrada, Erik Bloodaxe, the sons of Ragnar, the turbulent and tumultous times of the Dark Ages. petty kingdoms vying for power... Gosh! So underrated... And of course, The Venerable Bede... Oh!

    • @Mr.Firefox Befora the series Vikings, before Game of Thrones, before as you mentioned, modern pop culture, I had already been a fan of the Dark Ages. I am a teacher of English and that was the first and foremost reason why I moved to Yorkshire from my home country. I wanted to have a hands-on experience embracing every singly ounce of the era. That was the reason why I travelled through the North from Liverpool to Scarborough, from Edinburgh to Nottingham, visiting 44 villages, towns and cities along the way. Unfortunately, I can no longer be there but the North is in my heart for good. Even though I am not a born and bred Yorkshireman, my ex-colleagues and friends from Yorkshire honoured me with the entitlement of a honorary Yorkshireman. :D And I am really proud of it (actually, when I speak English, natives always ask me if I was from the North).

  • First time I've seen such an accurate account of the period - more please!

  • the modern flag of kent in england still shows the saxon steed (sachsenross), which is also still on the flag of the state of northrine-westphalia in germany, the ancient home of the saxons (the modern state of saxony has very little to do with the ancient saxons). also the names hengist and horsa both mean horse or pferd in german, whereby hengst (hengist) means stallion.

  • As a professional historian, I occasional think about time travel. The immediate post Romano Briton is a time that I'd love to view first hand. I'm certain this period is quite different then the described by the Chronicles.

    • you'd probably be gutted and robbed by a saxon war party inside of a day =) or you could go to arthur's court and call yourself merlin haha

  • absolutely brilliant,! we want more ancient celt-brittons videos:)

  • A great video again, but there is one mistake: The Anglo-Saxons didn't speak a North Germanic language. The spoke West Germanic dialects. To be precise they spoke Ingvaeonic dialects, which are also called North Sea Germanic. Up to the 10th century people from England and Lower Saxony - like Emperor Otto I. and his wife Eadgitha, sister of King Aethelstan - could understand each other. This could not be the case if in English would have descended by a North Germanic Dialect. Furthermore was their no reason for Angles, Saxons and Jutes to change their language when moving to Britain. The Jutes vanished from history after the Danish invasion of Jutland. The Danes brought their North Germanic dialect with them, why today the Danish language is spoken in the greater part of Jutland. Some Frisians still speak their Ingvaeonic language, but the language of the Saxons in northern Germany became more similar to the German dialects during the middle ages. Today it's somewhere between German, Dutch, Danish and its' Ingvaeonic origins. It differs from village to village and it was supposed, that it did so within the dark ages.

  • I wish there would be a game or a show or at least a book, talking of loosely-historically accurate events about King Arthur and the Saxon invasion of Britannia. Could add in some fantasy elements too, because we don't really know a whole lot about the time period.

  • Outstanding AF! I find this time in history to be absolutely fascinating! Thank you!!

  • Thank you so very much. I'm a 53 year old Latino living in Los Angeles who finds the history of that region of the Earth fascinating. I have watched many videos helping understand the history and all the changes that lead up to modern day England your video by far is the best video in explaining the history of that part of the our planet. Wow, that was so awesome. I finally understand, not being sarcastic really. I'm sure it's a bit more complicated than that but what a perfect way to explaining it to some one with very little knowledge.

  • It's important to remember that Gildas never mentions Vortigern. He simply refers to an unnamed tyrant.

  • Britons: You have freed us! Anglo-Saxons: Oh, I wouldn't say "freed". More like, "under new management".

  • 12:47 Minor correction. The narrator says that the western half of England was on Angle, Saxon, and Jute hands. It should have been the "eastern half" as the corresponding map indicates.

  • it always intrigues me seeing the pre 1066 britain aka pre william the conqueror britain considering we never hear a lot about britain before the norman invasion and i have been fascinated to learn what civilization is like before the normans sacked britain

  • Would you consider to make an episode about Cerdic of Wessex? It was mind blowing to me when I knew he might be a Briton.

  • This is my favorite kind of content. Too little is said about late antiquity.

  • Enjoying video about Anglo Saxon migration to eastern regions of Britain islands & their successful attempts to building their status as local kingdom's in these regions ....thanks for sharing...kings & generals channel most respectable historical channel

  • Great video, especially on the production front. The attention to detail is excellent too. I do get annoyed, however, at the modern historian’s tendency to assume everyone in the ancient and medieval world was lying and it’s up to us, living over a thousand years after the event, to uncover the truth.

  • I had just started playing as the Celts in Total War Attila a few days ago,great timing Kings and Generals!

    • happy framerates

    • Which clan are u playing as

    • @Jevo Children of the Night (Picts)

  • What an awesome video about an epic part of British history.

  • I was interested in learning the era of Sub-Roman Britain. This is the era of King Arthur after all. What shocked me was that the Welsh kingdoms and indeed Wales in general is the remnant of the Romano-Briton civilization which has spread across Modern England. Indeed even the name England is Germanic.

    • England is ?

    • @Roberta Yoder Oh the name England is Anglo-Saxon in origin. It would come from Englaland or “Land of the Angles”. The Anglo-Saxon language and culture are predominantly Germanic not Celtic or Britonnic. As I said, the Welsh are the remnants of the Romano-Britons in Britain. Although some migrated to Brittany in France (Breton is a Celtic language and not of Latin origin unlike French) and Galicia in Spain (although it seems they assimilated there more since Galician is predominantly an Iberian language).

    • @Raphael Ledesma thanks i thought about that after commented Germam name land

  • good stuff. I do recall reading that there were already several waves to Brittany even before the Romans left Britain. Could be the reason why there was such a poplulation replacement with very little evidence of war.