The 4 things it takes to be an expert

čas přidán 1. 08. 2022
Which experts have real expertise? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via get 20% off a yearly subscription.
Thanks to and Chessable for the clip of Magnus.
Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive psychology, 4(1), 55-81. -
Calderwood, R., Klein, G. A., & Crandall, B. W. (1988). Time pressure, skill, and move quality in chess. The American Journal of Psychology, 481-493. -
Hogarth, R. M., Lejarraga, T., & Soyer, E. (2015). The two settings of kind and wicked learning environments. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(5), 379-385. -
Ægisdóttir, S., White, M. J., Spengler, P. M., Maugherman, A. S., Anderson, L. A., Cook, R. S., ... & Rush, J. D. (2006). The meta-analysis of clinical judgment project: Fifty-six years of accumulated research on clinical versus statistical prediction. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(3), 341-382. -
Ericsson, K. A. (2015). Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Academic Medicine, 90(11), 1471-1486. -
Goldberg, S. B., Rousmaniere, T., Miller, S. D., Whipple, J., Nielsen, S. L., Hoyt, W. T., & Wampold, B. E. (2016). Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical setting. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 1. -
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363. -
Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & Cognition, 7(2), 149-158. -
Tetlock, P. E. (2017). Expert political judgment. In Expert Political Judgment. Princeton University Press. -
Melton, R. S. (1952). A comparison of clinical and actuarial methods of prediction with an assessment of the relative accuracy of different clinicians. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota.
Meehl, E. P. (1954). Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. University of Minnesota Press. -
Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. -
Special thanks to Patreon supporters: RayJ Johnson, Brian Busbee, Jerome Barakos M.D., Amadeo Bee, Julian Lee, Inconcision, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr.,, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Timothy O’Brien, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal
Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Ivy Tello and Fabio Albertelli
Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound (
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang

Komentáře: 11 000

  • Wow, this was incredibly insightful!

    • XD You're here too?!

    • wow chess itself amazing

    • do u know how magnus guessed the zapata vs anand game? it was literally 2 moves in and a petrov, which is a pretty common opening. i think im missing something lol

    • They got a channel

    • @@romerrosales-hasek1961 ​ There's no other memorable game in a Petroff. Similarly had the position started with a couple of moves in the Philidor, Magnus would have said Morphy's opera game. I know these even if I'm just 1500. But make no mistake, Maggie can recognize some very obscure GM games

  • The four things are 1. Valid environment (chess is valid, roulette is random) 2. Many repetitions (predicting election results is hard as they are rare events with low repetitions vs. tennis shots) 3. Timely feedback (anesthesiologist gets instant feedback vs. radiologist gets delayed feedback) 4. Deliberate practice (practice at the edge of your comfort zone, identify weakness and work on it)

    • Thanks mate. Watched this vid a while ago, didn't take notes. Thanks to your comment I recalled everything again without the need to spend 20 mins again.


    • Seem obvious when you break them fown

    • Thanks mate

    • @@userh6699 it's in the description

  • "excellence is not an art, it's pure habit. We are what we repeatedly do" 20 points to whoever recognises the quote

    • Who's quote is it?

    • Aristotle

    • Art is some elite group of people's habit. Don't you get it now?

    • ​@@Fabian-fd7go thanks. I know the quote but trying to remember who said it was gonna drive me mad

    • @@lizanna6390James Clear - Atomic Habits ?

  • As a chess player I want to make a little correction. The feedback is not just winning or losing, but rather its cause and effect. Developing or leaving pieces in certain places leads to different outcomes as a butterfly effect. At first you cannot recognize what action or inaction caused the whole avalanche that leads to you dominating or losing, but with time you start to recognize for example that leaving your bishop over there always allows the opponent to attack. So your feedback is actually recognizing how patterns or moves lead to other patterns.

    • That is actually quite a good point. I am a beginner at chess and I am seeing more and more patterns, as well as the butterfly effect. It's really cool haha

    • I use the same concept to improve my skills in drawing realistically or learning music. I don’t watch tutorials, I pay attention to exactly where I went wrong and how I can improve it, targeting that specific weakness

    • @@userh6699 What is from what book?

    • ​@@danielburleson563Check the likes again 🙂

    • @@SkyLordPanglot you have 500 likes when top comments usually have tens of thousands? Wow buddy, you're really bragging huh

  • This is easily my fav video on this channel, or anywhere really on the subject of learning and mastery. Its weirdly more inspiring than hour long talks you hear on this subject that's supposed to motivate you, but unlike those this is just 18 mins of hard-hitting concrete concepts that's proven to work. Amazing 🔥

    • Definitely the most objective and helpful video to date. Thankful for this too

    • I agree, we should all try something new and if we like it, no matter what it is, if it can be improved we should keep trying no matter how hard it gets

    • This reminds me of a book I recently read called "barking up the wrong tree." It demonstrates ways people can actually be successful rather than ways people think they will be successful. Only valid hard evidence as to what actually works versus what we think works but actually doesn't. For example, being told "good luck" is proven to actually raise test scores versus people who don't have someone tell them that. We would dismiss it but it's actually proven to raise people's success rate.

    • 48 laws author Robert Green Wrote a book called Mastery that breaks down how having a concrete "Reason", calling, or emotional tie is the basis of all of this. Which is futher explored in "Start with Why" by Simon Sinek.

  • I worked as a cashier for a few years. I had to remember 100's of product numbers with up to 5 digits. first tryed to remember them all but its almost impossible. after some time, i call it muscle memory, i just remembered where i had to touch my screen and not the digits themselves. when colleagues asked me for a certain product i mostly couldn't answer but when i went to their screen i just typed in the number.

    • I have the same thing, but with a Rubik's Cube. Couldn't tell you how, I could just show you

    • I have a similar quirk with typing. If you swapped every key on the keyboard, I probably couldn't rearrange most of them into the correct spot from memory, but I still technically "know" where all of them would be when writing something.

    • I had a similar experience working for a shipping company where I had to memorize thousands of zip codes and categorize them. I did memorize most of them but you can't keep up unless it becomes pattern recognition.

    • My neighbour work in a photography studio and he is also somewhat similar. He can close his eyes and do the editing, copy-pasting, and all the other stuff without using the mouse a single time, that too at lightning speed.

    • to explain ​@@psychedelicpain420's statement, instead of thinking ‘oh T perm, means R U R’ U’.. (and so on),’ we rather think of it as ‘okay, wrist turns, index finger flicks..’

  • 5:00 repeated attempts with feedback 6:47 valid environment 11:23 timely feedback 13:50 don't get too comfortable

    • 0:00 beginning 8:59 middle 17:58 end

    • 0:28 random number generated 4:30 random number generated 7:24 random number generated 12:56 random number generated

    • 😂😂😂

    • you're a baller, king. added 18 minutes to my life from this summary. maybe you are actually a god and not a man. i already have a father but you can be my daddy

    • Thanks, I have seen this video a couple of times, but sometimes I just forget his exact wording. You just spared me the hassle of scrubbing through the video for a refresher.

  • I find one thing in common in all these points: a strong and consistent two-way flow of information

    • what does it mean to have a "two-way flow"?

    • ​@@dinamosflams I hope my examples explain it well, since I couldn't create a good definition for this topic. Reading a book is an example of a one-way flow. You can read the book and take really good information from it, but if you don't understand something, you can't ask the book a question. A private class, on the other hand, is the opposite, for obvious reasons. But you don't always need a person for a two-way flow. Programming/coding can be a two-way flow if you are able to see what exactly your code does when it's running (for example, when using the debugger and knowing what information will help you solve the issue) rather than just getting a "success" or "fail" and trying to guess what the heck you did wrong.

    • @@Luciothecommenter oh nice, thx

    • ​@@Luciothecommenter that's actually a better explanation

    • @@Luciothecommenter It’s good explanation but further you could say it’s a two way linear flows.

  • Language learning has to be the number 1 field to study expertise - pretty much everyone has put in multiple 10s of thousand of hours into it and almost everyone arrives at what is perceived to be an expert level. Compared to non natives, almost everyone is Mozart in their native language, we just don't see it because we're all at that level. You also have beginners learning as adults to study/compare. I'm convinced all the answers are to be found in how we learn language, which is to essentially live and breathe it all day, every day for many years, and many thousands of hours.

    • Yes, this is absolutely right.

    • Great point. A language is a representation of the entire world, with all of the complexity that entails... so it makes sense that, in order to learn a language well (as almost all of us do), the learning process must be proceeding optimally.

    • Not almost everyone is a Mozart in their own language… (As an example, consider how many people mix its and it’s) A lot of ppl are perfectly fine with being too comfortable regarding the practice of their mothertongue

    • ​@@CapitaineBleuten I said, "compared to non-natives." A well educated person, who speaks another language well, might use less frequent words that one might only use if they were subject to higher education, but that's usually just a translation from their own language. A lot of natives don't read and so therefore don't use such words, but _all_ of them, almost without exception, have ridiculously good flow and accent, and have the ability to say the same thing multiple different ways, effortlessly. For me, that's a sign of real fluency, when you have an almost endless well of combining words in multiple different ways to say the same thing. A native speaker will pretty much _always_ blow a non-native out of the water in that game. That's why they appear to be Mozart, because it appears so natural and effortless. As for 'it's' and 'its,' you're always going to be able to pick on one tiny detail that some people will never acquire, native or not. People from Essex, here in England, say "we was" ALL of the time, it's a HUGE error, but it's become acceptable in that part of the country. Despite that, I guarantee that ALL of those native speakers would seem like geniuses next to someone who has only had like 1/5 (or less) of the exposure (and worse quality exposure too) of the language as an adult learner. Obviously we don't see them that way because it's 'expected' that they're more fluent, but if you weren't aware of that fact, the native would appear to be ridiculously talented compared to the non-native. There are errors that are acceptable when you're a native speaker (granted, that 'it's Vs its' example probably isn't one of them, but it's common). The text books might tell you that it's wrong, but the people do it anyway. That doesn't mean that they're not insanely good at the langauge, unless you're strictly talking flawless, textbook grammar. Even in that case, I'd still back a native, with comparatively weak grammar, to do better with grammar (overall) than pretty much any adult earner.

    • What about the 'hardwiring' of language though? If I understand correctly its one of the skills for which we have some built-in capacity that isn't 'learned' (I'm a certified non-expert here hehe, so forgive me if I'm using the wrong vocab). Would this make it unsuitable as a model for learning other skills??

  • Man. You just clarified a concept which I was struggling to understand for years. Literally years. You definitely deserve validation for your work. A big thanks to you.

    • @@userh6699 ah interesting, does it have all the 4 concepts?

  • Become an expert: 1. Repeated Attempts with Feedback 2. Valid Environment 3. Timely Feedback 4. Don't Get Too Comfortable Build Long term memory: 1. Valid Environment 2. Many Repetitions 3. Timely Feedback 4. Deliberate Practice

    • What do you mean to say?

  • As a teacher, I think this info is so important. As students we are taught to perceive ourselves as one form of learning, instead we actually learn best from multiple approaches.

    • I remember they tested us all as whether we were kinesthetic, audio or visual learners. Luckily a lot of teachers pretty much ignored the results.

  • The Four Things are: 4:55 1. Repeated attempts with feedback 6:48 2. Valid Environment 11:22 3. Timely Feedback 13:52 4. Don’t get too comfortable

    • This be it. 2x speed viewer come in clutch 10 mins after uplaod

    • why

    • @@HDTomo i suppose they are an expert at this

    • @@maruftim go at 2x the speed to learn 2x faster 😎😎😎

    • @@HDTomo Seems legit

  • The last part hit so hard for me, my grandpa is a very good musician, and he didn’t study music but his brother offered him a job as a pianist when he only knew the basics but he needed to provide for a family of 5 children so he took the job he played piano and organ every day for many for many hours, he told me that he didn’t like playing the piano but the few times I have heard him he plays extremely good and knows about a ton of stuff that not even my mother knew about, like when he was in my home studio he started patching my synth and started jamming and my mom was like you know how to used that? And he was like: yeah, and I hate it! I’m not sure what made him hate music that much he eventually bought a building and started renting apartments and sold all his instruments, but still getting out of his comfort zone made him a great musician

  • I just made an acronym for me to always remember these four criteria. It's PERF (from "performance"), P - (Deliberate) Practice E - (Valid) Environment R - Repetition F - Feedback Great video, as always!

  • The younger doctors being better at identifying rare disease is so true form my experience. I’ve recently been diagnosed with a rare disease, pfapa where I get random super high fevers, and at dinner during one of my sickness my cousin who’s soon to complete medschool said that we seriously need to start looking into the cause, and with helping me contact my doctor ordered a bunch of bloodwork. Later once the results were we were at dinner looking at them again and the doctors in the family were debating what it could possibly be and what do next I remember my cousin correctly identified it as pfapa about 7 months and 5 doctors before we found out for sure.

    • Hope you're feeling better. And if not, hope that you will.

    • @@CalvinHikes thx man, it’s slowly been getting better :)

    • Why did you call your dad a disease

    • I definitely prefer younger doctors for exactly the reason he mentioned

  • Serious question: have you ever considered making a textbook(s) about the things you cover? Your topics are consistent, you're well sourced, the information is often novel or scarcely known, and extremely relevant for everyday life. The usefulness should exceed any school textbook I can name, even in post-grad.

  • I think there's another way to think about this A. Expertise is about recognizing the pattern B. Recognizing pattern comes from storing highly structured information in the long-term memory via FEEDBACK Four things it takes to store highly structured information in the long-term memory via FEEDBACK 1. Repeated Attemps (WITH FEEDBACK) - you must have some type of feedback first 2. Valid Environment (PROPER FEEDBACK) - the feedback should give you valuable lesson to improve the next time 3. TIMELY FEEDBACK 4. Deliberate practice (PROGRESSIVELY UPGRADE FEEDBACK) because overlapping & repeating feedback won't help you become better, it must be upgraded over time for new lessons, and hence improved expertise accordingly -> As you can see, it all surrounds feedback, which indeed, is the core of learning, recognizing pattern as we see in machine learning. After all, ti's about using feedback in the right way, right?

    • suy nghĩ bạn sâu thật đấy, cảm ơn b vì bài học giá trị

    • I like this way you broke it down 👌

    • Great one!!!!

  • I recently had a MASSIVE argument with my university because they repeatedly did not provide any feedback to essays or exams. Just a mark and that's it. I backed my perspective with a ton of academic works on education, that I doubt any of them ever read. I'm going to show them this video. Because university courses that don't provide feedback are virtually useless.

    • Hopefully you got them feedbacks

    • Not to mention the occasional mistakes which in turn is an undetectable false feedback

    • They will point to #2 or #4. You point to #3 They will point you to your instructor's office hours.

    • I'll play devil's advocate and say that a normal university course is not trying to make you an expert at a skill. Reading about a topic and then writing your thoughts down will give you a level of knowledge about it that allows you to begin to think critically about it. It is only a starting point to becoming an expert, if you want to take that path. No one expects someone coming out of college to be an expert in anything.

    • ​@@PeteQuad quite a steep price for what's equivalent to watching a CS-tv playlist or taking a Udemy course

  • Fantastic video. I can confirm the "chunking" and "patterns" with classical music training. Classical music playing at the professional level requires internalizing hundreds of complex patterns of 2 to about 12 notes in a sequence (besides the thousands of hours practice to play in-tune, etc..), so we can sight-read any piece of music (even for a large ensemble together) written from the years c.1600 to c. 1910 - ish... playing up to 8-12 notes per second accurately. Classical players often balk at playing "new classical" music because modern composers often make up new patterns (or no patterns at all), and it forces the player to read each note carefully. Sometimes, each note has special written instructions, or new made-up symbols attached with lengthy descriptions. It frustrates many expert skilled players.. especially if they are underpaid for the time they have to spend learning it!

  • I have found this video profile extremely motivating and insightful. And it immediately raises a question: how many people actually tried to pursue any kind of high-expertise field or career like that same chess playing or composing their own music after they had watched videos alike? That would be awesome to suppose that this piece of content is indeed that same feedback that helps improve 😉🤔

  • The ammount of depth he goes into hits the sweet spot to get everyone an insightful idea about "how to become an expert"

  • Similar to this is the fact that in my tech class, which was basically a more broad shop class, we were told it's the experts who most often fail to follow the safety rules because they gain confidence and lose diligence, whereas if you've just been told you could lose fingers and resonate with that because of your own lack of experience, you'll usually be very careful

  • Extremely useful! Thank you. This explains why we see "experts" getting it wrong almost all the time. This should be a required course for our young. I think we confuse an opinion with an "expert". Coding we can have experts. I am in this area. I think more healthy skepticism would make our society better.

  • 04:56 1. Repeated Attempts with feedback 06:52 2. Valid Environment 11:23 3. Timely Feedback 13:46 4. Don't get too comfortable

    • I was looking for it...thanks

    • It's funny how many times this comment is repeated. I'm becoming an expert.

    • @13:00 how does that formula work

    • 16:32 To build up memories (as an expert), it requires 4 things: - Valid Environment - Many Repetitions - Timely Feedback - Deliberate Practice

    • Would it be easier to say -practice a lot -with timely feedback -where the feedback is valid -and also when you practice drill down into what you are doing

  • I am a teacher and a coach. I appreciate these videos greatly. It will help me in improving my students.

  • I rarely comment on CS-tv videos, but this might just be one of the best I've ever seen. I would say that it affirms your status as an expert communicator. So well done, thank you for sharing your insight

  • This is a great video! Thank you for making it. It's interesting to see what it takes to become an expert.

  • This resonates with me so much! Really well structured and explained - easy to follow along and get the main points! So crazy how many times I've watched someone do something "spectacular" when in reality, the spectacular thing leis in their consistency to learning to recognize patterns. I definitely light up my drive for becoming an expert within my field of interest!

  • My brother was a chess grandmaster. I saw him arranging the board according to one of the games in the chess magazine and playing over and over again until he memorized all the moves. He also played long hours whenever he had an opponent. He told me that whoever can memorize more games and their variant is usually the winner.

  • 4:03 - Definition of the expertise 5:00 - Repeated attemps with feedback 6:46 - Valid environment 11:21 - Timely feedback 13:50 - Don't get too comfortable

    • at which point is the definition of expert given?

    • Nice. That explains why people get easily into the habit of videogaming, which has all of these. Ergo, we need more educational games! 🤗

    • @@0000song0000 honestly never even realised that! no wonder games are so addictive. it's like doing a hobby but since it's been specifially designed to do each of these things (cus of how they work) it gives way more dopamine than a less consistent "regular" hobby!

    • dont get too comfortable is the most important of the four

    • nice

  • How excellent is that content, precise, concise and fun to watch. Great job and thank you !

  • Great video! It's incredible how the points you have made in that video are valid for so many different areas. Language learning, lifting weights / losing weight / sport performance in general, university/job etc. All these things are based on these principles. I think consistency with a desire to improve is probably the main aspect. And be open for feedback. Also accept that there will be ups and downs. From my own experience, as long as everything is fine and goes well it's easy to stay consistent, but let's say you are training in the gym a few times per week and suddenly you experience an injury. Jumping back from that injury and then being consistent again, even though you'll perform worse than you have before, is the most difficult, but also most important part.

  • 3:17 Patrones son la clave 4:40 para llegar a experto 7:14 Excelente ejemplo 14:23 deliberate practice 16:30 Recap

  • That's pretty interesting that there's a term for "chunking" because I've been playing guitar for 18 years and I tell people all the time that the way I memorize songs is by visualizing melodic lines as shapes on the neck of the guitar. I never knew there was a term for simplifying complex things as more easily storeable memory

  • I now grasp the concept of leverage. Creating wealth and financial freedom isn't as tough as many people believe. Building wealth and remaining financially stable indefinitely is a lot easier with the appropriate information. Participating in financial programs and products is the only true approach to make a high income and remain affluent indefinitely.

    • Most people simply enter the foreign exchange market without comprehending matters like this. The first stage in building money is determining your goals and risk tolerance, which you may do on your own or with the assistance of a financial counselor who works with a verified Finance agency. And also you can learn the facts about saving and investing and create a clear plan, you should be able to acquire financial security over time and enjoy the benefits of income management.

    • That is why I work with John Desmond Heppolette, who introduced me to a better financial community, a valid organization where I learned how investing works and how to invest proficiently, as well as free books, courses, and daily lectures. You also get to meet new people, which was the best decision I ever made..

    • That's great, your financial advisor must be really good, I have seen testimonies of people using the help of financial advisors in making them more financially stable. I just discovered his exceptional resume when I made a Googled search of his names online. I consider it a blessing that I discover this comment area!

    • It amazes me greatly how I go from living an average lifestyle to making over £63k monthly, utter shock is the word. I've learned a lot in the past few years to doubt that there are plenty of opportunities abound in the financial markets; the only thing is know where to focus.. Thanks to John Desmond Heppolette.

    • John Desmond Heppolette, really seem to know this stuff. I found his web-page when I made a google search of his full names, read through his resume, educational background, qualifications and it was really impressive. I left him a note and booked a call session with him..

  • The pattern recognition became very clear to me when I learned Morse code. The human brain takes 50 milliseconds to process and understand a sound. People regularly send and receive Morse code at 30 words per minute, which puts the dit character and the gap between all characters at 40 milliseconds. So you literally have to process sounds faster than the brain can recognize them. Over time you start to hear whole words in the code rather than individual letters, but you still have to decode call signs character by character. You basically cache the sounds in your brain without processing them, and once the whole set of characters passes, your brain is able to turn it into an idea and add it to the stack of previous ideas while your ears are already caching the next set of characters.

    • It's even more interesting when you start learning the patterns to how people drive. You can pretty much predict what someone is going to do just based on how they position the vehicle. And being a bus driver it's a good skill to have. It's surprising how many people share the exact same methods of cutting into traffic or in front of a 20t vehicle that could squish their pathetic trucks. It's great for avoiding accidents on and off work. Truck drivers though... They can be 50/50.

    • This is the same as reading a word, rather than a letter... Its just using a different system (auditory, rather than visual). Our brains LOVE to group (or "chunk") things given the understanding and oppertunity.

    • I had a schizo co-worker one time who could pick snippets of dialog out of white radio noise.

    • @@skinovtheperineum1208 "Go into the light!"

    • @@khabuda where did u learn morse code i wanna give it a try..?

  • Very helpful. I find outside feedback is very important. Playing a game and winning or losing is feedback, sure, but it can be a very slow process to actually learn what you're doing wrong. For instance, I was playing an online FPS with some friends over the pandemic and I definitely improved but even when I was playing every day I never got great at the game... only passable. It's frustrating to not know what you need to do to improve

  • Key takeaway: To become an expert, one needs a valid environment, many repetitions, timely feedback, and thousands of hours of deliberate practice. Other key highlights: Expertise requires a valid environment with regular patterns to be learned. Repeated experience with clear, timely feedback is crucial for developing expertise. Professionals without repeated experience in similar situations may not be true experts. Low validity environments, such as stock markets, make it difficult to demonstrate expert performance. Immediate feedback helps improve performance, while delayed feedback hinders improvement. Deliberate practice, pushing beyond one's comfort zone, is necessary for developing expertise. True expertise involves recognition of patterns built through structured information in long-term memory.

  • This is why i love topics like control systems, and machine learning. It's basically putting an "expert" into a system to statistically make predictions or control a system. I'm totally aware that ML has it's creepy porperties and that we sometimes don't know whats going on in there but to be honest we neither know that precisely if we aks an expert. In some use-cases ML is just damn powerful but yes at the end of the day it's statistics.

  • This is one of the most useful videos I've watched so far. Thank you so much. Let's keep becoming experts at something. 💪🧠

  • In my freshman year of highschool, my math teacher gave us a challenge where the student who could remember the most digits of PI on PI-day (March 14th) would get a few points added to their lowest test score. This gave us like 4 days or something to try to remember. I won with 100 digits. Nobody else really cared that much so the most anyone else got was like 10 digits. Yes I am as much of a loser now as I was back then.

    • not a loser

    • Pi day only occurs in the US

    • >I won with 100 digits. Nobody else really cared that much so the most anyone else got was like 10 digits. >Yes I am as much of a loser now as I was back then. so you are an overwhelming winner now then?

    • @@gslidevideotester8592 saying that he is loser, he points out his desperation in a typically occuring pathetic situation. He was so desperate to get at least some points that he put overwhelming amount of effort to get insignificant improvement. It is like selling a car for $20, bc he missed a chance to sell it for $20k, and now he tries to get at least something but zero.

    • As long as you’re having fun and happy

  • I have two examples of this. One is learning to operate a backhoe / excavator bucket. You get feedback pretty quickly and over the period of say 50 - 100 hours of operation, you go from a complete mess to being able to operate 3 hydraulic cylinders at once smoothly moving the bucket in a tight window in a complex movement. The second is being a great engineer. It takes 1000's of projects, with new things to make you consider different things. Eventually you are an expert and you know almost instantly what is going to work without having to make the moves of calculating anything. A lot of engineers aren't great because they don't have the continuous curiosity to keep pushing for tough problems.... some stop during school and don't learn thing because they are curious and instead pass the classes on short term memorization.

    • I learned on old cable friction cranes and Dynahoe 4 lever . New machines 100× easier than in 1970s old stuff. My 9yo son ran my 325 CAT excavator after two hours perfectly.

  • I've heard the phrase "pure chess" from Magnus and Levy, and it makes me think that maybe for chess we need an advanced mode where computers generate via brute force some extreme positions where there's a maximal number of pieces on the board, a maximal number of moves into the game, and a maximal number of possible outcomes with both sides having equal chance of winning still. I think this would be a great starting point for a modern chess game that is in pursuit of the "pure chess" I keep hearing about. Let a machine find super complex positions for masters to compete as starting points from, instead of just the rote memorized game positions of which there are so many already. We should be seeking out a new chess that harnesses today's compute power and cleaves the rote memorization from the game to bring back the purity. Or, a whole new game entirely where options and possibilities are more highly dimensional, with each move creating a whole new exponentially complex set of possibilities. Something that's a cross between Go and Chess seems like a good abstract goal.

    • Fischer chess is fun alternative

  • I love videos like this one, it makes us think about trivial things with more insight than we usually do.

  • Not to trust the "experts" is definitely something I learned on the past few years and this video illustrates why very well. Great job!

  • Super insightful, thanks! As a low-time pilot working toward the airlines, I can see all of these concepts in my training so far. We repeat the same exercises often with immediate feedback, in a valid environment, and we keep pushing ourselves out of our comfort zone (without actually risking an accident).

  • This is a very timely video for the start of a new college term in September - I'll definitely be showing this to my new students!

    • and as a student... i learned a big lesson, as why i am not improving in the areas i already know somewhat ok, but improving in topics i don't know

    • Equally timely for a midlife crisis programmer, stuck doing the same stuff for nearly a decade.

    • Go for it

    • Please don't remind me that summer break is almost over

  • This is so accurate. One time I did 12 hrs. a day, 7 days a week of pedal to the medal (go as fast as you can as long as you dont tip over is what we were told) outdoor forklift driving. First time EVER touching a Forklift. Working at Welch's unloading trucks of grapes, dumping into a grinder, and putting the boxes back on the truck. I worked in the exact same environment you talk about, if you fucked up or did something stupid or slow, the farmers would roast your ass up and you be hearing about it until its fixed, they are pros at driving. You unload at least 1000 1 ton boxes per 12 hr. shift, and after about 500 hrs. of 12 hrs. EVERYDAY of my life, I started being able to beat my supervisors, who had drove for more than 20 years, I earned their respect, and they genuinely believed I had mastered driving, and it led me to a permanent driving position inside making good money. I was a good driver, but I wasn't allowed to go fast inside, and it was much easier.. I got worse. I broke my ankle moving a pallet and got fired. But I %100 believe this video because I never understood how I got so good so fast, but after watching this it makes sense.

  • Hey thanks! I’ve been wanting to catch this video for a while. Gladwell’s book was a fun start. There is a fellow, I think his name is Anders Erickson, who did quite a bit of research in this area that is interesting to check out. Thanks for pressing on in film and drama! Veritasium rocks!

  • Thank you for your effort to share wisdom for all with this platform ,in an interesting and easy to understand way

  • Brilliant. You just outlined a great model for AI/ML. As always, thank you for your continued insights and willingness to live on the edge with intellect. Cheers

  • i love this because its a broad skill it is adaptive i love videos like these we often make videos where we overlook concepts too much we forget main components just learning a new broad concept its very fun thinking of how much we have to learn sometimes we are just lost too deep in what we do its like looking down a sky scraper knowing how much we have

  • FOUR THINGS YOU NEED TO BECOME AN EXPERT 1. valid environment (structured, patterned) 2. many repetitions (not once-in-a-lifetime thing) 3. timely feedback (feedback as soon as you perform an action) 4. deliberate practice (practice outside of your comfort zone, at the edge of our ability, the zone of proximal learning)

    • Valid environment Many repitation Timely feedback Deliberate practice

    • Writing out in bullet points and memorizing it will not make you an expert any more than watching the video. Unless you do these yourself there's no point.

    • Valid environment Many repetition Timely feedback Deliberate practice

    • Valid Feedback Many Environment Timely Practice Deliberate Repetition

    • Repent and believe in Jesus Christ Your comment is irrelevant to the video. Move along bot spammer!

  • What happens when you play the tasks out in your mind and/or lucid dreams? Great video. What it seems like your saying is in order to be successful I first have to be successful. Which really means in order to be great I have to be an expert at failing. If I’m an expert at failing then I can more easily avoid failing and notice when I fail etc. etc. Also I think your video is pointing me in the direction of Dr. Peterson’s book: 12 Rules for Life. Thanks for your videos and I hope you keep making more.

  • I believe no other channel on the you tube is as amazing as this!!! Thank you so much for all your efforts in sharing the great things with us!!!

  • What do you think of programmers. I relate to the first ones, but I become comfortable with debugging. Debugging means you're trying to fix something that went wrong. even though it may not be as challenging, the longer it goes the more complex it becomes. I'd love to hear thoughts!

  • this was pretty nice :))) its like we have certain perceptions about certain things and in my case I feel like I know how this will work but watching these videos always opens up a new way of thinking

  • Getting comfortable is the part that always kills me. I learn very quickly but once I get something down fairly well, I stop challenging myself and just rest on that success.

    • I think thats actually a positive, i would think that in almost any situation, having a good command of many skills and subjects, and being able to move on to the next thing fairly often would have much greater utility. First, because in most things experts are not that much more useful than the merely competent. If you spend ten times the resources and time to become twice as good, then that only matters much in fairly specific tasks. secondly, what happens if your area of expertise either beomes irrelevant or you are unable to use that expertise for some other reason? Imagine being the star running back through high school and college, certain to be drafted. Since the age of 8 that guy has devoted unbeleivable time and effort, got a scholarship that was of necessity a basketweaving degree (not all but most football players do not get useful degrees or even finish them) and so lost that opportunity for education, and suffers a career ending injury in the second last game of a college season. All that expert knowledge all that training just became useless, at best they might have some crossover skills, and depending on the expertise there might be few of those. Perhaps your own 'weakness'n is a strength?

    • Comfort level doesn't matter at all. Deliberate practice does.

    • @@ynemey1243 l

    • this is literally me

    • A lot of us have that problem.

  • This is both disheartening and inspiring. Knowing that so many ‘successful’ people with so much ‘power’ and influence didn’t get to where they are because they’re *actually* good at what they do is certainly a bit concerning, yet encouraging because we can change this 🙂

    • How people gain power and authority would also make an interesting video. I bet #1 would be having friends in the right places.

    • @@CalvinHikes “It’s not about *what* you know, it’s about *who* you know.”

  • 100% motivating, inspirationnal and most of all these are ways to think that we don''t usually hear about. Don't know if I was clear but thx !

  • I think this is part of why it's so hard to ever feel competent in an art - patterned feedback exists to a degree, but so much of whether a piece of media takes off or not is subjective.... and if it doesn't take off AT ALL you don't get the opportunity for feedback in the first place.

  • This runs really true for reinforcement learning. It usually works if you have a limited environment and can learn with feedback.

  • always thought I was terrible at memorizing numbers (couldn't keep phone numbers and b-days in) asa child / teen. Then a friend of mine learned like 10 digits of pi, which impressed me so I gave it a try. Just a couple of weeks later i got to a hundred and kept going to 250. Now I haven't memorized for more then a decade and I can still go up to like 50. It is so baffling how easy and automatic it becomes

  • "we should be wary of experts who don't have repeated experience with feedback" perfectly nailed it.

    • @13:00 how does that formula work

    • Jesus loves us all that's why he died for our sins

    • there are ways to make up for experience but this is a conversation that you're not prepared for. Also people can speak from experience and also receive second hand experience. There are requirements to being able to make up for lack of real experience.

    • ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 2 Esdras 2: 30 -100 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

    • @@XKnightLightX that's what a non expert would say

  • Great professional promising project. The project was executed in a very manner and had a clear development plan. Without a doubt, this is one of the best projects out there, success always.

  • 00:03 Experts like chess masters have superior performance compared to amateurs 02:20 Expertise is about recognition 04:31 Repeated attempts with feedback is one of the key criteria to become an expert. 06:41 Repeated experience with feedback and a valid environment are key requirements to become an expert. 08:44 Most investment professionals fail to beat the market due to low validity environment of stock picking. 10:44 Delayed feedback makes it harder to learn and improve. 12:42 Becoming an expert requires practice at the edge of your ability. 14:35 Deliberate practice and continuous learning are key to becoming an expert. 16:28 To become an expert, you need a valid environment, repetitions, timely feedback, and thousands of hours of deliberate practice. Crafted by Merlin AI.

  • I love this channel!!! Always super insightful and interesting, thank you!

  • The original study for the 10,000 hours of practice was a general number derived from asking multiple high level experts in a diverse set of fields. Newer studies have found that it takes only about 20 hours of deliberate practice to become proficient or excel in any given field (Not mastery).

  • This is pretty interesting to me because the whole thing about masters chunking positions and having a difficult time with random positions is something I basically predicted in a comment on a hikaru video a month ago. It was in regards to him playing chess960 blindfolded. Especially interesting because I dont have much experience predicting the inner workings of chess master brains and yet I seem to have been correct

  • 1. Valid Environment 2. Many Repetitions 3. Timely Feedback 4. Deliberate Practice

  • Great an amazing video. 17:58 mn, but I guess it took many hours, days to have this great content. Well done to all the team. Keep it up !

  • I think the case for the first piece position scenario has to do with the fact any arrangement the puzzle master chooses will have to be at least somewhat similar to a beginning or mid game chess scenario, it is unwise they should opt for end game since there are too few pieces to facilitate a challenge. The master is likely very well versed in chess openings which is a big help to him, maybe some stuff in that is reminiscent to the London opening as an example. Hell, even I, someone that hardly ever plays chess could place more pieces correctly than the beginner by just knowing this simple bit of info: the initial position of chess pieces when setting up the chess board. From just that I could likely place at least 10 pieces correctly because immediately I see 8 of the pieces are still in their exact starting positions 6 pawns 2 rooks have not moved, 3 seconds later I see the white king is also in his starting position and that the space occupied by the 6 pawns is symmetric on the first rank 3 either side of a 2 block wide hole. I just placed 9 pieces straight off the bat, I also see the kings. Information 2: the initial move of a pawn can be 2 squares forward, I revealed the kings pawn has performed his initial 2 square dash but otherwise he is also in his starting position. I can also pin very easily pin down a black knight's location: kings pawn has used his 2 square move where he is right side threatened by a black night long L. I just placed 10 pieces and that's very easy to notice in 5 seconds with just these facts about chess: Initial board setup A pawn may dash 2 squares on his first move The moveset of a knight I got 10 pieces down and I haven't even had to consider specific openings yet My next 5 second peek I would likely start considering the initial placement of the black pieces and some more non obvious white ones. For the random placement this crutch of the solvers knowledge about chess is much less useful and they have to rely almost exclusively on memory and pattern recognition and forming your own associations is way harder than when the association (possible chess arrangements) is a component in the puzzle's construction. Hell the only thing I could see is the Bishop in the bottom right corner of the board forms a minecraft pickaxe shape with the corner pixels sparkling like diamonds (white pawns) and the head pixel as dull as coal (Black pawn) allowing me to place only 4 pieces.

  • A very interesting video. I am trying to get decent at bridge which has a combination of randomness, feedback and pattern recognition. It is clearer now what I need to do to significantly improve my game. It also explains why there are a subset at my bridge club who will never get beyond beginner level even after decade(s) playing.

  • I'm applying it on my own life, thank you so much Sir ❤

  • It would be interesting to have a deep dive video on deliberate practice - what constitutes it, how to engage in it proactively, etc.

  • I remembered this video watching a curling game, to me it's something like chess but with phisics involved, I wish you give us a video about that sport with things to think about - like you always do

  • Great video topic/explanation. I'm especially curious to see insider metrics from CS-tv creators. _Big youtubers like yourself know the business that us long time viewers would spend an incredible number of watch hours to discover..._

  • Thank you sir, you have impacted my life in a big way. Just wanted to express this.

  • This explains alot in an elegant way. I've always noticed there can often be huge differences between 'experts' and some of that feels like its explained by this. Some correctly get all 4 factors and become true experts, some get the qualification without getting through all four elements and becomes an 'expert'.

  • Thank you sir, for another life-changing video :)

  • Mathematician here. I did a lot of teaching when I was in grad school, and this video really hits all the nails on all the heads. Only in my last year did I figure out a concrete mantra to tell my students, encouraging them to not get discouraged by challenging problems because you only improve a skill by pushing yourself beyond what's comfortable. (The words I used were "engaging with uncertainty" rather than "deliberate practice", but they amounted to the same thing.)

    • I taught a little math myself and had started to realize "there is no learning without failure" but I didn't get to implement that as a positive strategy before I left the profession.

    • @@johnno4127 Nor adequate short term memory adequate for the task ... and, the desire for them to actually understand (if it was to be useful / deep knowledge).

    • Also "We learn from mistakes" is a helpful phrase. If we never make mistakes - we learned the theme, and to become better we have to solve problems which are "on the edge" of our knowledge, where we can still make mistakes.

    • I have so much respect for teachers who legitimately care about the success of their students as that's rare nowadays I find. I had a lady math teacher who was always running around with sweat on her brow preparing practice papers for us before exams and stuff. My grades went from 60% range to 80% range under her and even got 93 for one of the big exams which was higher than the "nerd" of the class who was going for a scholarship.

    • Studied physics in college. Those professors that emphasize difficulty (or simply make it hard) Iearn the most from. In classical mechanics I got 35% on my second quiz and 100% on my third. Getting spanked (metaphorically) sure helped me learn.

  • For people interested in this phenomenon, there is a book titled "Thinking Fast and Slow" which elaborates on the 2 mentioned systems in your brain. It is a very informative and deep diving book on the mechanics of these 2 systems and their cooperation with eachother.

  • Thank you. I’ve been reading a lot of books about uncertainty and sometimes the expert is not so reliable and are overconfident with their true abilities!

  • How would you do a deliberate practice if you are a student and try to study a certain subject? I feel like I tend to rely on the same study mechanism subconsciously. Does studying different subjects count as a deliberate practice? Or the underlying study method is what makes us improve?

  • These also apply directly to machine learning with ANN. Not enough practice (or training epochs) and resultant underperformance is under-fitting, and older doctors getting worse diagnosing because rare events get overridden by the frequent ones is an example of classic overfitting. Which of course makes sense since our brains are also Neural Networks albeit not Artificial.

  • this is actually true for most things i guess ^^. Only things like sports can be an exceptions because you have limiting factors like genetics(so the environment is partly not valid). thanks for making these videos :) !

  • Great content and thought provoking. I'm a radiologist with almost 20 years of experience in breast imaging. I'd like to indicate that our task in breast cancer diagnosis is not to actually determine if a finding is malignant or not. Rather, to look for features that are concerning for cancer, In which case we would do a biopsy. As we try to err on the side of caution, the usaual statistic quoted is that 70% of the biopsies are actually cancers. Therefore, this apparent "low" rate of accuracy is not a reflection of poor performance, nor is it related to a lack of feedback. In actuality each case we biopsy is followed by an accurate pathology report within days. Radiologists are involved in multidisciplenary rounds with our clinical colleagues and we also have internal quality assurance measures to ensure a high level of competence.

    • My guess is that the original findings about performance of recent graduates vs long-time practitioners were over-simplified, much like the "10,000 hours rule" was.

    • He wasn't referring to poor performance or lack of feedback, but how fast the feedback is received.

    • So you're saying that where a computer would generate accurate result but have false positives and false negatives you err on the side of caution which results in more false positives but less false negatives as false positives are much less impactful? (superfluous biopsy vs missed cancer). Would interesting to have radiologist give their best estimate without being on the cautios side, but I don't know if the study tried this or even if that would work.

    • @@NicolaiCzempin but it makes sense in the context he provided which was diagnosing rare illnesses. For young graduates the many edge cases they learned in university are still relatively fresh in their minds

  • You are my favourite expert ever. Research, research and research. Assembling information and explaining it!

  • I have on occasion interviewed candidates for job openings. I learned to distinguish between people who had 10 years experience vs. people who got too comfortable, and had 1 year of experience repeated 10 times.

  • This video is crazy. Brilliant, brilliant man. I am a big believer that most of the time, ego kills our advance in life. What I mean by this is there are a lot of people that believe just because they are full of books, they are experts. Learning from experience and getting straight feedback prove to be the best strategies for learning for me. The example you give there about radiologists and anesthesiologists. Doing something and having the opportunity to get feedback straight away is the best learning process. The same go for learning a language. For example, I am learning English, and two years ago, I moved to the UK. Now by living here, any time I hear some expression, I take notes and ask some native friends. By doing this, I 'am learning a lot every day. In this way, I am going to start a Language business for sure ahahah. This video really makes me feel good about being an expert and understand how to learn properly. Again is really sad that we make people with a degree so important when in reality, most of those people don't have any passion and drive for what they do, and most of the time, they don't really like what they do. Passion and knowledge are powerful. Amazing video again, man. You did an amazing job. I am writing this, and I didn't finish the video yet, crazy! I believe one of the biggest killers of Mastery and being an expert is fear, and this is one of the reasons I always say without overcoming our fear, we can study a lot, but we are never gonna reach our full potential. With this, I am not saying we don't need to study. What I mean by this is going to school is right, but at the end of the day, at one point, it's really important to be honest with ourselves and start channelling our energy to what really can make us reach our full potential. It can be learning a language or studying marketing. Another example where we can get instant feedback and learn can be talking with people or girls in our daily life. By doing this and analysing the reaction we receive from people, analysing what we say... We can learn a lot and improve our confidence and communication.

  • "We should be wary of experts who don't have repeated experience with feedback" 👏👌👍

  • This channel, and this video especially, inspired me to lead some presentations at work to motivate our team to become experts.

  • 1.Repeated attempts with feedback - "4:47" 2.Valid Environment - "6:57" 3.Timely feedback - "11:21" 4.Don't get too comfortable - "13:53" Along with the 10,000 hours 😄

    • the 10000 isn't necessary, i think thats just the amount of time it seems to take most people to gain a solid understanding of those 4 principles within their field, whether they realize it or not.

    • @@mannnygz exactly if these people who succeeds in these 4 things with less time than 10,000 they are called a prodigy or genius

    • Thanks man 4th point is very important because whenever I do maths Problem I only do same or simple problems which makes it harder to solve difficult questions. Let's see how much can I improve by doing these steps 😁😁😁

    • @@electrofx657 It might be better to acknowledge that genius is not simply "one who succeeds in attaining these 4 rules early or in less time". There is much more to being a prodigy or genius (whatever we people mean by these terms). For example, apart from these, a person considered among the best in his field has great attitude, passion, creativity, wonder and, arguably the most important of all, persistence.

    • @@hassanh7926 hmm

  • This was just 🤯 reaffirmed my suspicions on stocks and medical experts. What a great video!

  • Becoming a good trader takes time and patience. When i first got into trading i was liquidated twice, and lost my entire mortgage deposit. I could have given up, but decided to learn how to trade and put it into practice. 4 years later and i am glad i made that decision.

    • When did you start finding consistency? ..and more honest question is how long would a rough expectation be to find consistency for a new day trader?

    • @@jeffreyhulkman144 I started becoming more consistent in 3 phases, first was when i killed greed, then i became more patient, but he must important part was when i started working with a coach who made me understand the importance of avoiding FUD, FOMO AND HERDS mentality. with her entry and exit strategies i was able to grow $10k to $70k in 5 months in a well diversified portfolio

    • @@classicphotos8916 who is your coach if this is not too much i'm asking? I've been looking into advisors lately myself, my retirement plans are going down the drain, my 401k has particularly lost everything gained since 2019

    • The bots are becoming more advanced

  • Very good video. I can relate alot to what was said and use it in my rehearsal work. Thanks

  • Awesome video! Thank you for this, made me more aware of mechanisms of expertise.

  • This is why in speed rock climbing championships the wall pattern of the rocks have never been changed so the athletes remember the pattern and don’t even have to think where the next rock is they already know. 👍👍

  • As a mathematician, these four factors definitely resonated with me and I think math is field that really encourages that deliberate practice. Great video!

    • I'm a University undergrad in STEM, math is definitely a deliberate practice to learn it well, I found out the hard way that just memorizing patterns and formulas wasn't good enough. I always wondered how TA and professors got so good at math they were able to teach others, some of the TA tutors (Grad students that tutor undergrads) actually forgot some of the formulas for calculus (there are so many lol) but as soon as we would refresh them on the formula they were able to instantly crack on, and finished the examples effortlessly. Memorization of formulas is only a very small percentage of high performance in mathematics, its all about repetition, and putting yourself against hard problems that take an uncomfortable amount of thinking and time to solve.

    • Math is my favorite subject (along with physics). If you one day revisit this comment, would you share with us what it’s like to work in your field and some tips on getting there?

    • Dr. B, As a fellow mathematician I have to say that I love your channel!

    • @@12345swordmaster It's actually kind of like chess. Imagine old math problems to be previous chess games. Everyone knows the rules, but experienced players can see a lot more patterns and tendencies when they encounter a problem.

    • @@ananthd4797 yes but you have to practice