The 4 things it takes to be an expert

čas přidán 1. 08. 2022
Which experts have real expertise? This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via get 20% off a yearly subscription.

Thanks to and Chessable for the clip of Magnus.

Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive psychology, 4(1), 55-81. -

Calderwood, R., Klein, G. A., & Crandall, B. W. (1988). Time pressure, skill, and move quality in chess. The American Journal of Psychology, 481-493. -

Hogarth, R. M., Lejarraga, T., & Soyer, E. (2015). The two settings of kind and wicked learning environments. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(5), 379-385. -

Ægisdóttir, S., White, M. J., Spengler, P. M., Maugherman, A. S., Anderson, L. A., Cook, R. S., ... & Rush, J. D. (2006). The meta-analysis of clinical judgment project: Fifty-six years of accumulated research on clinical versus statistical prediction. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(3), 341-382. -

Ericsson, K. A. (2015). Acquisition and maintenance of medical expertise: a perspective from the expert-performance approach with deliberate practice. Academic Medicine, 90(11), 1471-1486. -

Goldberg, S. B., Rousmaniere, T., Miller, S. D., Whipple, J., Nielsen, S. L., Hoyt, W. T., & Wampold, B. E. (2016). Do psychotherapists improve with time and experience? A longitudinal analysis of outcomes in a clinical setting. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 1. -

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363. -

Egan, D. E., & Schwartz, B. J. (1979). Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory & Cognition, 7(2), 149-158. -

Tetlock, P. E. (2017). Expert political judgment. In Expert Political Judgment. Princeton University Press. -

Melton, R. S. (1952). A comparison of clinical and actuarial methods of prediction with an assessment of the relative accuracy of different clinicians. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota.

Meehl, E. P. (1954). Clinical versus Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence. University of Minnesota Press. -

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. -

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: RayJ Johnson, Brian Busbee, Jerome Barakos M.D., Amadeo Bee, Julian Lee, Inconcision, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, Avi Yashchin, John H. Austin, Jr.,, Matthew Gonzalez, Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Timothy O’Brien, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, jim buckmaster, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Ivy Tello and Fabio Albertelli
Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno
Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images
Music from Epidemic Sound (
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, and Emily Zhang


  • Wow, this was incredibly insightful!

  • 5:00 repeated attempts with feedback 6:47 valid environment 11:23 timely feedback 13:50 don't get too comfortable

    • Good

    • Thanks

    • I'd always prefer long videos to include a short summary. Most people nowadays suffer from Short Term Memory Loss and are unable to concentrate for long periods of time. So summaries are always welcomed.

    • Thank you

  • The four things are 1. Valid environment (chess is valid, roulette is random) 2. Many repetitions (predicting election results is hard as they are rare events with low repetitions vs. tennis shots) 3. Timely feedback (anesthesiologist gets instant feedback vs. radiologist gets delayed feedback) 4. Deliberate practice (practice at the edge of your comfort zone, identify weakness and work on it)

    • Seem obvious when you break them fown


    • Thanks mate. Watched this vid a while ago, didn't take notes. Thanks to your comment I recalled everything again without the need to spend 20 mins again.

  • This is easily my fav video on this channel, or anywhere really on the subject of learning and mastery. Its weirdly more inspiring than hour long talks you hear on this subject that's supposed to motivate you, but unlike those this is just 18 mins of hard-hitting concrete concepts that's proven to work. Amazing 🔥

    • This reminds me of a book I recently read called "barking up the wrong tree." It demonstrates ways people can actually be successful rather than ways people think they will be successful. Only valid hard evidence as to what actually works versus what we think works but actually doesn't. For example, being told "good luck" is proven to actually raise test scores versus people who don't have someone tell them that. We would dismiss it but it's actually proven to raise people's success rate.

    • I agree, we should all try something new and if we like it, no matter what it is, if it can be improved we should keep trying no matter how hard it gets

    • Definitely the most objective and helpful video to date. Thankful for this too

  • I think without love and obsession for what you do, those steps can feel unbearable. If you love what you do deeply and are obsessed with it... being uncomfortable is not even that bad. It's like Kobe Bryant tearing his achilles, shooting free throws and walking off the court.. He said that when the game is the most important, you don't even feel the pain. I'm sure he's been in pain and uncomfortable a whole lot in his career but he LOVED the game of basketball too much to even care about the discomfort. He was obsessed.

    • My Feelings Exactly

    • @E N therapy is really good, support groups and stuff like that are great too. Anything where someone else can hold you accountable (in a good way). I just quit drinking (which usually involves tuning up your mental health, a lot) and the biggest difference was actually going to rehab for a month. Not saying you need to do something like that. But, by committing to that (getting professional help) I was able to really properly work on my mental health and actually set goals and see progress etc. Hope that’s helpful✌️

    • What do you do when depression makes it so that you're passionate about anything? :(

    • It’s incredible how something which sounds idealistic (such as parents telling their kids to pursue a career ‘they are passionate about’) can ultimately be the one thing that enables us to willingly go through these steps.

    • Yea "passion" is the immeasurable quality that can actually override *everything* else.

  • I just made an acronym for me to always remember these four criteria. It's PERF (from "performance"), P - (Deliberate) Practice E - (Valid) Environment R - Repetition F - Feedback Great video, as always!

    • This is awesome. ^^

    • What about: D deliberate practice V valid enviroment A R repetition F feedback

    • Brilliant!! Thank you for this :D

    • I suggest applying this method to be called "perfersion", and people doing it as "perfert"

    • Or perf ection

  • The pattern recognition became very clear to me when I learned Morse code. The human brain takes 50 milliseconds to process and understand a sound. People regularly send and receive Morse code at 30 words per minute, which puts the dit character and the gap between all characters at 40 milliseconds. So you literally have to process sounds faster than the brain can recognize them. Over time you start to hear whole words in the code rather than individual letters, but you still have to decode call signs character by character. You basically cache the sounds in your brain without processing them, and once the whole set of characters passes, your brain is able to turn it into an idea and add it to the stack of previous ideas while your ears are already caching the next set of characters.

    • That’s because, context clues no doubt.

    • @KyuzoMugenUndPanzer hahahahaha

    • @TheTrooperMB few things I used to do when I drove meds to nursing homes, i would calculate in my head what time I would get there based on speed and miles away, and I used to deliver meds across my tristate area so I built a mind map in my head (this was back when TomTom was still a newer thing). Just a few ideas to work on.

    • Why isn't this showing up as the top comment for the video? Instead I have some nonsense about stocks being skills based

    • @Chris McAulay but understanding Morse code through hearing is crazy cause the mind is chunking at an incredible rate relative to reading

  • Language learning has to be the number 1 field to study expertise - pretty much everyone has put in multiple 10s of thousand of hours into it and almost everyone arrives at what is perceived to be an expert level. Compared to non natives, almost everyone is Mozart in their native language, we just don't see it because we're all at that level. You also have beginners learning as adults to study/compare. I'm convinced all the answers are to be found in how we learn language, which is to essentially live and breathe it all day, every day for many years, and many thousands of hours.

    • I speak 8 languages myself and linguistics is one of my passions, it totally rewires the brain

    • @Times&Spaces that's because they're not "errors", but rather grammatical constructs of certain dialects. "We was" is not a mistake or an error, but rather part of the grammar of certain dialects. It's wrong in Standard English, but no one really speaks like that anyway.

    • What about the 'hardwiring' of language though? If I understand correctly its one of the skills for which we have some built-in capacity that isn't 'learned' (I'm a certified non-expert here hehe, so forgive me if I'm using the wrong vocab). Would this make it unsuitable as a model for learning other skills??

    • ​@CapitaineBleuten I said, "compared to non-natives." A well educated person, who speaks another language well, might use less frequent words that one might only use if they were subject to higher education, but that's usually just a translation from their own language. A lot of natives don't read and so therefore don't use such words, but _all_ of them, almost without exception, have ridiculously good flow and accent, and have the ability to say the same thing multiple different ways, effortlessly. For me, that's a sign of real fluency, when you have an almost endless well of combining words in multiple different ways to say the same thing. A native speaker will pretty much _always_ blow a non-native out of the water in that game. That's why they appear to be Mozart, because it appears so natural and effortless. As for 'it's' and 'its,' you're always going to be able to pick on one tiny detail that some people will never acquire, native or not. People from Essex, here in England, say "we was" ALL of the time, it's a HUGE error, but it's become acceptable in that part of the country. Despite that, I guarantee that ALL of those native speakers would seem like geniuses next to someone who has only had like 1/5 (or less) of the exposure (and worse quality exposure too) of the language as an adult learner. Obviously we don't see them that way because it's 'expected' that they're more fluent, but if you weren't aware of that fact, the native would appear to be ridiculously talented compared to the non-native. There are errors that are acceptable when you're a native speaker (granted, that 'it's Vs its' example probably isn't one of them, but it's common). The text books might tell you that it's wrong, but the people do it anyway. That doesn't mean that they're not insanely good at the langauge, unless you're strictly talking flawless, textbook grammar. Even in that case, I'd still back a native, with comparatively weak grammar, to do better with grammar (overall) than pretty much any adult earner.

    • Not almost everyone is a Mozart in their own language… (As an example, consider how many people mix its and it’s) A lot of ppl are perfectly fine with being too comfortable regarding the practice of their mothertongue

  • I find one thing in common in all these points: a strong and consistent two-way flow of information

    • @Lucio It’s good explanation but further you could say it’s a two way linear flows.

    • ​@Lucio that's actually a better explanation

    • @Lucio I can see what you mean, it is the same thing for someone who likes to try many things. You became better at basketball because I could basically feel my body giving me feedbacks at how it was reacting to it and by recording my practices and noticing every waste of movement, not well executed, how lifting weight was affecting my flexibility and agility, posture, etc Never managed to make it far because of tragic development of asthma, but I've definitely managed to improve my son's game to a remarkable level. The other very important thing, is to make sure he doesn't get comfortable and also making sure I share with him all that I've learnt before he is 16, because that's when their physical and mental states allows them to be very creative and execute without difficulties. A beautiful age for young men in any thing they enjoy.

    • @Lucio oh nice, thx

    • ​@Vinícius de A Batista I hope my examples explain it well, since I couldn't create a good definition for this topic. Reading a book is an example of a one-way flow. You can read the book and take really good information from it, but if you don't understand something, you can't ask the book a question. A private class, on the other hand, is the opposite, for obvious reasons. But you don't always need a person for a two-way flow. Programming/coding can be a two-way flow if you are able to see what exactly your code does when it's running (for example, when using the debugger and knowing what information will help you solve the issue) rather than just getting a "success" or "fail" and trying to guess what the heck you did wrong.

  • I worked as a cashier for a few years. I had to remember 100's of product numbers with up to 5 digits. first tryed to remember them all but its almost impossible. after some time, i call it muscle memory, i just remembered where i had to touch my screen and not the digits themselves. when colleagues asked me for a certain product i mostly couldn't answer but when i went to their screen i just typed in the number.

    • My neighbour work in a photography studio and he is also somewhat similar. He can close his eyes and do the editing, copy-pasting, and all the other stuff without using the mouse a single time, that too at lightning speed.

    • I had a similar experience working for a shipping company where I had to memorize thousands of zip codes and categorize them. I did memorize most of them but you can't keep up unless it becomes pattern recognition.

    • I have a similar quirk with typing. If you swapped every key on the keyboard, I probably couldn't rearrange most of them into the correct spot from memory, but I still technically "know" where all of them would be when writing something.

    • I have the same thing, but with a Rubik's Cube. Couldn't tell you how, I could just show you

    • 👆👆Thanks for watching and congratulation 🎊you have been selected among my shortlisted winners. Telegram only to claim your prize 🎁🥰🥰

  • As a chess player I want to make a little correction. The feedback is not just winning or losing, but rather its cause and effect. Developing or leaving pieces in certain places leads to different outcomes as a butterfly effect. At first you cannot recognize what action or inaction caused the whole avalanche that leads to you dominating or losing, but with time you start to recognize for example that leaving your bishop over there always allows the opponent to attack. So your feedback is actually recognizing how patterns or moves lead to other patterns.

    • That is actually quite a good point. I am a beginner at chess and I am seeing more and more patterns, as well as the butterfly effect. It's really cool haha

  • The younger doctors being better at identifying rare disease is so true form my experience. I’ve recently been diagnosed with a rare disease, pfapa where I get random super high fevers, and at dinner during one of my sickness my cousin who’s soon to complete medschool said that we seriously need to start looking into the cause, and with helping me contact my doctor ordered a bunch of bloodwork. Later once the results were we were at dinner looking at them again and the doctors in the family were debating what it could possibly be and what do next I remember my cousin correctly identified it as pfapa about 7 months and 5 doctors before we found out for sure.

    • @Caveman Hikes thx man, it’s slowly been getting better :)

    • Hope you're feeling better. And if not, hope that you will.

  • The Four Things are: 4:55 1. Repeated attempts with feedback 6:48 2. Valid Environment 11:22 3. Timely Feedback 13:52 4. Don’t get too comfortable

    • Don't get too comfortable

    • @HDTomo Attention span? None?

    • the hero we need

    • It's funny how many times this comment is repeated. I'm becoming an expert.

    • @froge Don’t think of me anything more than a random troller, joker, clown. This comment was just a joke, since Veritasium’s videos are to be watched in full length, this comment also made fun of videos that take too long to get to the point and poked at other comments of similar nature. In other words, this comment is a work of art, a meaningful analogy.

  • I've been a programmer now for 3 years. The first two years were difficult. At the start of the third year I fealt like an utterly terrable engineer. What I did have however was a limited self diagnostic ability. I knew I wasn't good at a lot of things. I knew this effected the quality and timlyness of my work. I wrote these down on a piece of paper and handed it to my manager. He arranged a meeting with myslef, him and a HR rep. We discussed at great length, each point on my list. We went over each of my concerns, his appraisal of each point and then devised a plan of action for improvement. At the end we agreed to revisit the list every fortnight and see if it had an impact. First couple of months = things on the list didn't get any worse. No major improvement either. I fealt unhappy with progress but my assigned mentors persisted and we adjusted my plan of action to suit the changing landscape Following few months = the revised plan was more effective, my continued efforts to adapt, learn and grow were starting to show. I fealt happier with my performance Past the halve way point = many of my issues that were more manageable had been resolved leaving some more habitual shortcomings. Seeing these same few over and over, fortnight after fortnight was distressing. I decided to start intense self study Nest a year in = through spending substantial amounts of my spare time studying coding patterns, best practices and new technologies, my efforts in work improved across the board. My pace was higher than ever, my communication with other engineers was noticeable, my suggestions were accepted with open arms. My manager was greatful to note my improvement and fealt I was ready for a major feature. weeks later = I completed my assigned work well ahead of schedule. My work flew through testing and came back with minimal suggestions from peer review. While I don't consider myself an expert quite yet. I have learned from personal experience that there are indeed 4 qualities required to become O e

    • @Bubuixd Same here until a few months ago - I decided to enter two courses at university in software development. Now after half of the courses are done, my skills have improved 100% compared to trying learn it by my own. I found out that the structure is super super important! By entering a course, there is clear assignments and not fumbling around, watching tutorials on YT or projects to do. Highly recommend it!

    • Hi James! Thank you so much for this. I just started my self taught programming journey and stuck on some challenges. It is just so hard to do things by ourselves. Reading your comment motivates me to do more. Thank you so much!!

    • Fantastic story. Strikes me that you know how to learn. I am going to use your method!

    • Hey James! I’m 2 years in to my software career and I started down a similar journey of trying to improve. I also wrote down my perceived shortcomings, I meet with 2 mentors, and have an initial plan to address my weaknesses. Im still at the beginning of this process though. Do you have any insights or practices you’d be willing to share with me? Cheers!

  • I really love the way you compare and contrast the nature of professions from various fields, it's extremely helpful!

  • I studied and played chess for almost 7 years. Also, I already knew what chunking is. It was in our lesson in Cognitive Psychology. But I didn't realized that the reason behind chess players' memory and rapid evaluation were because of chunking. That experiment was really enlightening. Btw, the first position in the experiment was not really that hard since it is pretty common position. But the second one was like, man, I couldn't understand what was happening. It takes time to evaluate it.

  • I love this video, the part that hit home for me was when you talked about the idea doing things that are uncomfortable to really cross that threshold of becoming an expert. As a dancer, this resonates, because everything we do feels awkward, strange and even uncomfortable until you get used to it over time. I'm curious what the the threshold is for what i call "productive discomfort". Like you, I also play guitar and mostly the same stuff I've played since high school because it is comfortable. Personally, I like to allocate my discomfort to the activities where I really want to push myself, but I'm curious if there is any science to this idea of "allocating discomfort" that ive made up for myself. Would love a future video exploring that topic. Excellent video tho, I plan to show it to all of my students!

  • I recently had a MASSIVE argument with my university because they repeatedly did not provide any feedback to essays or exams. Just a mark and that's it. I backed my perspective with a ton of academic works on education, that I doubt any of them ever read. I'm going to show them this video. Because university courses that don't provide feedback are virtually useless.

    • @Philipp Drescher You corrected itzak in order to agree with him. Whether you put it into a pool, or all directly pay, "free" is NEVER "free". Nothing in existence is free. Not to the furthest reaches of space.

    • Welcome to "people study the philosophies OF, rather than PHILOSOPHY." Meaning, the dean and the professor may have degrees in science (philosophy of science), but have zero formal anything in PHILOSOPHY itself. Therefore, they BELIEVE that they can not only think, but think better than you. They can't. If you provide an argument as to why, yet they continue, you're dealing with fools, regardless of their weightless degree.

    • @Philipp Drescher It is a good system as is the one used here where everyone who meets the grade requirements has access to high education

    • @peev Even better, you shouldn't prep for the exam in the first place. Let the exam judges you instead of you judge the exam. Unfortunately, it's pretty hard, especially tied to life-changing moments

    • @Mi' the Mermaid Ivy League, maybe. But even top national unis like UI, ITB (I give Indonesian examples here) are still notorious for not giving feedback enough, sometimes

  • I always thought I was terrible at memorizing numbers (couldn't keep phone numbers and b-days in) asa child / teen. Then a friend of mine learned like 10 digits of pi, which impressed me so I gave it a try. Just a couple of weeks later i got to a hundred and kept going to 250. Now I haven't memorized for more then a decade and I can still go up to like 50. It is so baffling how easy and automatic it becomes

  • I have found this video profile extremely motivating and insightful. And it immediately raises a question: how many people actually tried to pursue any kind of high-expertise field or career like that same chess playing or composing their own music after they had watched videos alike? That would be awesome to suppose that this piece of content is indeed that same feedback that helps improve 😉🤔

  • Serious question: have you ever considered making a textbook(s) about the things you cover? Your topics are consistent, you're well sourced, the information is often novel or scarcely known, and extremely relevant for everyday life. The usefulness should exceed any school textbook I can name, even in post-grad.

  • As a teacher, I think this info is so important. As students we are taught to perceive ourselves as one form of learning, instead we actually learn best from multiple approaches.

  • 04:56 1. Repeated Attempts with feedback 06:52 2. Valid Environment 11:23 3. Timely Feedback 13:46 4. Don't get too comfortable

    • ​@William Bougart Mozart, Beethoven, Ravel, Picasso, Matisse, Monet, and many others did ok without it...

    • Thank you so much. What's your cashapp I'll donate something because I really get sick of videos that don't have time stamps

    • @Beth Garma I'd say it is an environment in which the feedback you get is meaningful. The roulette table is a counter-example, because the responses (win/lose) are random. Practicing penalties is a valid environment, because the responses (hit/miss) tell you if your shot was good.

    • @Peace for All Good rephrasing. I believe that the last point would be better as "and do not afraid to go outside of your comfort zone".

    • valid environment is something in which there are limited number of variables. This makes it predictable.

  • I'm a mechanic with 23 years of experience. This video makes a lot of sense to me!

    • We never get credit respect we deserved. Yet I love diagnosis trouble shooting difficult problems like a logic puzzle I solved and make money. 1974 I began still going.

    • How you learned mechanics

  • How excellent is that content, precise, concise and fun to watch. Great job and thank you !

  • I am interested in this from the point of view of becoming expert as an artist, specifically at fine art drawing. I agree that at the minimum, expertise requires that 10,000 hours be spent making drawings. But I believe that many, if not most, artists make the mistake of spending too many hours belaboring single time-consuming drawings. So they falsely imagine themselves to have made great strides towards expertise if they, say, slaved 100 hours on a single large drawing. However, my point is that they would be much more productive and gain skill much more effectively if they instead created 100 drawings taking one hour each. This is because each of the 100 different drawings should be expressly seen as opportunities to try something new or branch off creatively in a direction not tried before. That is the approach I use. I will sometimes spend hours on a single drawing, but in a given day perhaps I could start and possibly finish around six or eight new drawings, which can be finished later as time permits. Each one presses forward creatively in some new way. Over time, the thousands of hours effort gets applied, and still the many hundreds (even thousands!) of finished presentable drawings will accumulate. And, I do believe, real expertise will ensue.

  • This is so accurate. One time I did 12 hrs. a day, 7 days a week of pedal to the medal (go as fast as you can as long as you dont tip over is what we were told) outdoor forklift driving. First time EVER touching a Forklift. Working at Welch's unloading trucks of grapes, dumping into a grinder, and putting the boxes back on the truck. I worked in the exact same environment you talk about, if you fucked up or did something stupid or slow, the farmers would roast your ass up and you be hearing about it until its fixed, they are pros at driving. You unload at least 1000 1 ton boxes per 12 hr. shift, and after about 500 hrs. of 12 hrs. EVERYDAY of my life, I started being able to beat my supervisors, who had drove for more than 20 years, I earned their respect, and they genuinely believed I had mastered driving, and it led me to a permanent driving position inside making good money. I was a good driver, but I wasn't allowed to go fast inside, and it was much easier.. I got worse. I broke my ankle moving a pallet and got fired. But I %100 believe this video because I never understood how I got so good so fast, but after watching this it makes sense.

  • 3:17 Patrones son la clave 4:40 para llegar a experto 7:14 Excelente ejemplo 14:23 deliberate practice 16:30 Recap

  • FOUR THINGS YOU NEED TO BECOME AN EXPERT 1. valid environment (structured, patterned) 2. many repetitions (not once-in-a-lifetime thing) 3. timely feedback (feedback as soon as you perform an action) 4. deliberate practice (practice outside of your comfort zone, at the edge of our ability, the zone of proximal learning)

    • This is how I will code from now on

    • I wish he gave credit to Ericsson or at least mentioned his book "Peak" because he used all the resources from his book to make this video but didn't even mention him or his book once

    • @Caleb Larsen so we shouldn't waste our time and money trying to learn how to trade the stock markets?

    • @Priya Ghoshal it means that you can't be an expert at something completely random (gambling, predicting earthquakes, the stock market).

    • It's funny how many times this comment is repeated. I'm becoming an expert.

  • I think there's another way to think about this A. Expertise is about recognizing the pattern B. Recognizing pattern comes from storing highly structured information in the long-term memory via FEEDBACK Four things it takes to store highly structured information in the long-term memory via FEEDBACK 1. Repeated Attemps (WITH FEEDBACK) - you must have some type of feedback first 2. Valid Environment (PROPER FEEDBACK) - the feedback should give you valuable lesson to improve the next time 3. TIMELY FEEDBACK 4. Deliberate practice (PROGRESSIVELY UPGRADE FEEDBACK) because overlapping repeating feedback won't help you better, it must be upgraded overtime for new lessons, and hence leveraged expertise -> As you can see, it all surrounds feedback, which indeed, is the core of learning, recognizing pattern as we see in machine learning. After all, ti's about using feedback in the right way, right?

  • 100% motivating, inspirationnal and most of all these are ways to think that we don''t usually hear about. Don't know if I was clear but thx !

  • On the subject of expertise, "Blink" by Malcolm Gladwell is an interesting book to read. It explores the idea of how our body(subconscious) makes a judgement call before our conscious mind even has time to process it, often times with better results. It was referred to as "intuition". I think this video not only validates the intuition-based-expertise, but also provides a simple formula on how to train our intuition/expertise. I do wonder though; What would be the opposite school of thought on this? Is the intuition-based-expertise applicable at any field?

  • Fantastic video. I can confirm the "chunking" and "patterns" with classical music training. Classical music playing at the professional level requires internalizing hundreds of complex patterns of 2 to about 12 notes in a sequence (besides the thousands of hours practice to play in-tune, etc..), so we can sight-read any piece of music (even for a large ensemble together) written from the years c.1600 to c. 1910 - ish... playing up to 8-12 notes per second accurately. Classical players often balk at playing "new classical" music because modern composers often make up new patterns (or no patterns at all), and it forces the player to read each note carefully. Sometimes, each note has special written instructions, or new made-up symbols attached with lengthy descriptions. It frustrates many expert skilled players.. especially if they are underpaid for the time they have to spend learning it!

  • Great video! It's incredible how the points you have made in that video are valid for so many different areas. Language learning, lifting weights / losing weight / sport performance in general, university/job etc. All these things are based on these principles. I think consistency with a desire to improve is probably the main aspect. And be open for feedback. Also accept that there will be ups and downs. From my own experience, as long as everything is fine and goes well it's easy to stay consistent, but let's say you are training in the gym a few times per week and suddenly you experience an injury. Jumping back from that injury and then being consistent again, even though you'll perform worse than you have before, is the most difficult, but also most important part.

  • 4:03 - Definition of the expertise 5:00 - Repeated attemps with feedback 6:46 - Valid environment 11:21 - Timely feedback 13:50 - Don't get too comfortable

    • @Napier Grass 7:10 low-validity = "no regularities to be learned"

    • @Liberty Prime only in part. Good video. Check out other videos as well :)

    • It's funny how many times this comment is repeated. I'm becoming an expert.

    • @0000song0000 @0000song0000 this is the part where im stuck and also very curious. And i actually am in favor of educational games. Id like to help design one. But is it better gaming or a better educational system? Both I think are going to be crucial. A combination of teaching topics in fun but logical environments is addicting. But we'd also need scenarios where the concepts are applied actively. Or else everything just becomes ...... untranslatable. .......enter in vr and simulated learning. One of the positives (despite a ton of negatives) in our current social media situation. And making it free, affordable or accesible to people.

    • what is the meaning of low validity in "valid environment" ? Please explain me

  • I love this channel!!! Always super insightful and interesting, thank you!

  • This is why i love topics like control systems, and machine learning. It's basically putting an "expert" into a system to statistically make predictions or control a system. I'm totally aware that ML has it's creepy porperties and that we sometimes don't know whats going on in there but to be honest we neither know that precisely if we aks an expert. In some use-cases ML is just damn powerful but yes at the end of the day it's statistics.

  • A very interesting video. I am trying to get decent at bridge which has a combination of randomness, feedback and pattern recognition. It is clearer now what I need to do to significantly improve my game. It also explains why there are a subset at my bridge club who will never get beyond beginner level even after decade(s) playing.

  • I feel really rewarded by all the amazing content of this channel! You make a great service spreading knowledge, very much obliged. ❤️

  • This resonates with me so much! Really well structured and explained - easy to follow along and get the main points! So crazy how many times I've watched someone do something "spectacular" when in reality, the spectacular thing leis in their consistency to learning to recognize patterns. I definitely light up my drive for becoming an expert within my field of interest!

  • Getting comfortable is the part that always kills me. I learn very quickly but once I get something down fairly well, I stop challenging myself and just rest on that success.

    • Imagination

    • @Marcelo Coutinho Huge jumps, eh? Take it from me, I am speakling from vast and tragic experience with obsession and overspecialization, more than enough to know how counterproductive both almost always are. Go be smug at someone else.

    • I am the same way. I was once told by a teacher a very important quote "the easier it is to be good the harder it is to be great." I'm so good at everything that I very rarely Master anything

    • It's just natural, because once you get to a certain point, what you get out of those thought patterns begins, and continues to, dissipate.

    • @Charles Parr also adding to that - you conjectured something as an obsessive OVERespecialization which is a huge jump that takes away a LOT of things (like passion and drive). Anyways, i'm more chill now and i've seen I might have been too blunt on my comments, but my point still remains the same. Also - i recommend you delve into at least one obsession. One involved with something else, that drives you to become involved so much in something (constructive) that you feel so at home and related to it you shine like nobody else. Try and have that. With no strings attached (profit, recognition). I think you'll do fine.

  • #1 : 4:58 - Repeated attempt with feedback #2 : 6:48 - Valid environment #3 : 11:43 - Timely feedback #4 : 13:53 - Don't get too confortable

  • Great video topic/explanation. I'm especially curious to see insider metrics from CS-tv creators. _Big youtubers like yourself know the business that us long time viewers would spend an incredible number of watch hours to discover..._

  • Great video. It's amazing how similar a deep learning neural network is to a way human learn to become an expert: pattern recognition via heaps of data and feedbacks.

  • "excellence is not an art, it's pure habit. We are what we repeatedly do" 20 points to whoever recognises the quote

  • That's pretty interesting that there's a term for "chunking" because I've been playing guitar for 18 years and I tell people all the time that the way I memorize songs is by visualizing melodic lines as shapes on the neck of the guitar. I never knew there was a term for simplifying complex things as more easily storeable memory

  • This is a very timely video for the start of a new college term in September - I'll definitely be showing this to my new students!

    • Jesus loves us all that's why he died for our sins

    • More important would probably to understand how to study most effectively, according to cognitive psychology. If you want a source, I can share if you'd like

    • Ironically finding my favorite pianist on an expert video hey @AlanKey86

    • @giveussomevodka Go work at a casino buffet. Restaurants are challenging and casinos usually give you free food (I've been working at one for 4 years now. Started at buffet, transferred to employee dining room after 2 years because of scheduling and my boss not being willing to make necessary changes. Employee dining room is also a little more lax. I'd choose it over any typical restaurant job. I get to restock a buffet-style line and cook free burgers while making $18 minus taxes and deductions every hour). The insurance is also like none I've ever had before. My copay at the doc is only $20. Medications: Usually just $5.

    • @D G college.

  • This is pretty coincidental to me right now. I’ve been considering how many flight hours I need to be considered an expert helicopter pilot. As of late, many commercial pilots have been coming through training an considered mediocre. Because of this I have been making it a point to be doing more maneuvers that push my skill and get me to recognize more situations “on the fly”.

  • Not to trust the "experts" is definitely something I learned on the past few years and this video illustrates why very well. Great job!

  • I have on occasion interviewed candidates for job openings. I learned to distinguish between people who had 10 years experience vs. people who got too comfortable, and had 1 year of experience repeated 10 times.

  • I've heard the phrase "pure chess" from Magnus and Levy, and it makes me think that maybe for chess we need an advanced mode where computers generate via brute force some extreme positions where there's a maximal number of pieces on the board, a maximal number of moves into the game, and a maximal number of possible outcomes with both sides having equal chance of winning still. I think this would be a great starting point for a modern chess game that is in pursuit of the "pure chess" I keep hearing about. Let a machine find super complex positions for masters to compete as starting points from, instead of just the rote memorized game positions of which there are so many already. We should be seeking out a new chess that harnesses today's compute power and cleaves the rote memorization from the game to bring back the purity. Or, a whole new game entirely where options and possibilities are more highly dimensional, with each move creating a whole new exponentially complex set of possibilities. Something that's a cross between Go and Chess seems like a good abstract goal.

    • Fischer chess is fun alternative

  • Some great stuff here. The necessity of feedback really shows itself in our society!

  • 1. Valid Environment 2. Many Repetitions 3. Timely Feedback 4. Deliberate Practice

    • It's funny how many times this comment is repeated. I'm becoming an expert.

    • @PanzerShrek facts!

    • 2 and 4 are the same.

    • Thank you! Was looking in the comments for this!

    • 5. Good genes.

  • I have two examples of this. One is learning to operate a backhoe / excavator bucket. You get feedback pretty quickly and over the period of say 50 - 100 hours of operation, you go from a complete mess to being able to operate 3 hydraulic cylinders at once smoothly moving the bucket in a tight window in a complex movement. The second is being a great engineer. It takes 1000's of projects, with new things to make you consider different things. Eventually you are an expert and you know almost instantly what is going to work without having to make the moves of calculating anything. A lot of engineers aren't great because they don't have the continuous curiosity to keep pushing for tough problems.... some stop during school and don't learn thing because they are curious and instead pass the classes on short term memorization.

    • I learned on old cable friction cranes and Dynahoe 4 lever . New machines 100× easier than in 1970s old stuff. My 9yo son ran my 325 CAT excavator after two hours perfectly.

  • That was amazing - I love your videos - thank you. It makes amazing sense and clearly demonstrates why despite spending a lot of time on certain things (e.g. gaming or writing) we aren't experts.

  • I think this is part of why it's so hard to ever feel competent in an art - patterned feedback exists to a degree, but so much of whether a piece of media takes off or not is subjective.... and if it doesn't take off AT ALL you don't get the opportunity for feedback in the first place.

  • Thank you again for such great content. This channel helps me thinks about how I approach problems in real life in addition to just learning about fascinating topics!

  • On point with everything especially the guitar example u gave, i tend to procrastinate for a couple of minutes, breath and then just practice hard chords, it always ends up easier than i thought

  • "we should be wary of experts who don't have repeated experience with feedback" perfectly nailed it.

    • @CAJUN KARL what is the point of relating this topic to being too young or drunk? Are you invalidating some responses here without any logical proof?

    • My dad fucked up my mind had me drinking with him after work when I was only 13 - way too young

    • @TRSPanda21 so true become Orthodox ☦️ check a channel like Father Spyridon or Abbot Tryphon

    • @TRSPanda21 Yeah but he only did it once, so is he really an expert of salvation? 🤔 Just kidding bless you and praise the holy spirit! Amen

    • @SquidwardNixon you dont get it. It makes up for part of the time it takes to correctly master parts of it. Experience merely helps solidify it and to see scenarios that you couldnt predict because you didnt know enough. I know because I can break down my experiences into parts, even the emotional elements. Also because I have to predict using deductive and inductive logic. Experience helps you see what is relevant or things they didnt teach you to begin with. That's a consequence of imperfect education because information isnt perfected yet. But some people can find what they need

  • There was a study showing how important labeled corrects answers are when training AI. Fascinating how much I feel like I’m learning about Machine learning by watching videos like this, and how much I’m learning about myself from watching how AI learns

  • You know something that just clicked in my mind? Those 4 things are often things that are suggesting to people who have adhd to help them succeed in life even though we can sometimes take a little bit longer in the 4 areas than average people. But I’ve seen great improvements in my life when positively affected by those 4 things. Just a thought.

  • this is actually true for most things i guess ^^. Only things like sports can be an exceptions because you have limiting factors like genetics(so the environment is partly not valid). thanks for making these videos :) !

  • Great vid! Just one question, from of all the bibliography you linked under the video, in which of those do I find the 4 things you mentioned? I'm currently doing some research for an essay and I would like to quote that. Thanks a lot 😊

  • Hey thanks! I’ve been wanting to catch this video for a while. Gladwell’s book was a fun start. There is a fellow, I think his name is Anders Erickson, who did quite a bit of research in this area that is interesting to check out. Thanks for pressing on in film and drama! Veritasium rocks!

  • In my freshman year of highschool, my math teacher gave us a challenge where the student who could remember the most digits of PI on PI-day (March 14th) would get a few points added to their lowest test score. This gave us like 4 days or something to try to remember. I won with 100 digits. Nobody else really cared that much so the most anyone else got was like 10 digits. Yes I am as much of a loser now as I was back then.

    • @Jim Hickstein It probably doesn't mean anything but, if it does mean something, it means that you have greater facility in memorising phone numbers than in memorising ZIP codes.

    • I only know around 30. What's amazing is I memorized it 20 years ago but can and will never forget it for some reason. Now I'm tempted to memorize my 24 word master crypto key. That's something worth never forgetting. People have lost their key. They should have just memorized it.

    • Having memorized 23,000 digits, I applaud you! I know firsthand how hard it is to justify to people the reason for doing something like this. For me, the real value had nothing to do with the digits themselves but in learning about my own brain in a new way.

    • I memorized 50 digits when I was in 8th grade. 45 years later I still remember 30 digits without trying or practice. Useless skill... NASA uses 15 digits for interplanetary calculations. That is sufficient to determine the position of Voyageur to 1.5 inches.

    • @Alan Steyrbach so its like FOMO?

  • Brilliant content, thanks a lot Derek!

  • Great video! About the Experiment with the red and the green button: Does someone happen to know wether the human subjects also received reward and punishment during that study?

  • When i play computer games, I feel all these princuples very well :D These do not require that much time dedicated, but other criteria are usually very distinctive. So games are like a practice for becoming an expert in other fields. Software developing (programming in particular) feels like gaming for me because those criteria are also very bright. You receive feedback of codestyle from colleagues and its correctness from compilers and tests almost immediately. All tasks are unique so you are always on some level of challenge (even if it consists only of deducing the task to familiar parts). And there is almost no randomness because there are not much things you cannot control for some degree.

  • This is an incredible insight into the effort needed to become an expert, I will definitely put the advice in this video to real world use. Thank You Again🔥

  • I believe no other channel on the you tube is as amazing as this!!! Thank you so much for all your efforts in sharing the great things with us!!!

  • 4:54 - many repeated attempts with feedback 6:46 - a valid (predictable) environment 11:20 - timely feedback 13:50 - don't get too comfortable

    • @birgit vdw If you write a timestamp with a colon, it becomes a link people can click to go to that part of the video, like so: 16:34

    • thx

    • @Joel George indeed, on 16'38 he shows them all 4

    • bless your soul

    • Isn't point 4 deliberate practice?

  • Super inciteful and thought provoking thanks as always for sharing Derek!

  • Great video. It is amazing how simple statistical paterns can often outperform "experts"

  • Very good video. I can relate alot to what was said and use it in my rehearsal work. Thanks

  • My closest experience to this is fighting games. When you are 'in the zone' your reaction speed can become inhuman.... If you are good you know the metagame and what is probable (not just for the game, but in that millisecond), you know how to look/listen for it because of pattern recognition... & the pattern recog can even bleed into intuition (Yomi, the art of reading people). Sometimes you aren't sure if you reacted to something or predicted it.

    • Does that work for a game like Smash Bros Melee?

  • This internal cache of information and patterns explains why my current self views the guitar fretboard in potential phrases or chord sequences. My beginner self viewed it as singular notes following each other through a maze. My next step is becoming an expert in a specific genre, not just really good in rock and country, and competent in Blues. Side Note: Brad Paisley used to spend entire days recording himself performing fingerpicking patterns on acoustic well beyond what his class required. This has enabled him to create complex rhythms while singing. Slash played guitar exercises in the corner of hotel rooms on repeat while hammered drunk to become a rock god. His blues improv is quite awful, tho. Same with David Gilmour. While SRV was a Blues guy.

  • 1.Repeated attempts with feedback - "4:47" 2.Valid Environment - "6:57" 3.Timely feedback - "11:21" 4.Don't get too comfortable - "13:53" Along with the 10,000 hours 😄

    • @Hassan H hmm

    • @єlẸcTrofŁυX It might be better to acknowledge that genius is not simply "one who succeeds in attaining these 4 rules early or in less time". There is much more to being a prodigy or genius (whatever we people mean by these terms). For example, apart from these, a person considered among the best in his field has great attitude, passion, creativity, wonder and, arguably the most important of all, persistence.

    • Thanks man 4th point is very important because whenever I do maths Problem I only do same or simple problems which makes it harder to solve difficult questions. Let's see how much can I improve by doing these steps 😁😁😁

    • @Manny exactly if these people who succeeds in these 4 things with less time than 10,000 they are called a prodigy or genius

    • the 10000 isn't necessary, i think thats just the amount of time it seems to take most people to gain a solid understanding of those 4 principles within their field, whether they realize it or not.

  • What do you think of programmers. I relate to the first ones, but I become comfortable with debugging. Debugging means you're trying to fix something that went wrong. even though it may not be as challenging, the longer it goes the more complex it becomes. I'd love to hear thoughts!

  • This is such a great and inspiring video! THank you so much for posting it

  • this is probably one of the most eye opening videos i have ever watched, cus as a kid i stumbled upon this but i never put it into an actual idea like this, it’s brilliant and i’m probably gonna implement it into my daily life as much as possible

  • This runs really true for reinforcement learning. It usually works if you have a limited environment and can learn with feedback.

  • Reinforcement learning is just a beautiful thing. It appears everywhere.

  • As a graduate student, this hits home pretty hard. We spend countless hours on a project, only to get feedback once when a final paper is submitted for peer review. The feedback is neither timely nor frequent. And yet, you get to claim to be an expert in your field by the time your graduate.

    • the project isn't for learning, it's for assessment

    • @Random User no the video only addressed company recruiters, who are notoriously poor at their jobs for precisely the reason the video explains. Better companies allow people who actually work with the hired individuals to make hiring decisions, because they actually get feedback on their decisions.

    • @cecesoclean Most in my field definitely steer away from degrees. We want to see the actual experience involved with the large projects you've accomplished, which is why my buddy who only has a GED, is way more valuable in their eyes then someone with just some college completed.

    • Well even if you do get consistent instant feedback, that'd only make you an expert in writing papers in that field

    • @R is has nothing to do with being smart, at least i didnt understand it that way. if you think about sports it becomes obvious that you need much more then "smartness" many thousand hours outside of your comfortzone does need an iron will, patience and many more to become an expert. i only can talk about football (european) and esports where you can see that u dont have to be very smart to understand memorize the gamemechanics. the chess example works pretty well, its about to recognize important stuff which decides the outcome.

  • Although it looks like you have only collected a few pieces of wisdom, but actually have revealed something very fresh. Thanks!

  • What happens when you play the tasks out in your mind and/or lucid dreams? Great video. What it seems like your saying is in order to be successful I first have to be successful. Which really means in order to be great I have to be an expert at failing. If I’m an expert at failing then I can more easily avoid failing and notice when I fail etc. etc. Also I think your video is pointing me in the direction of Dr. Peterson’s book: 12 Rules for Life. Thanks for your videos and I hope you keep making more.

  • I would love to see a video on imposter syndrome, on its own or in correlation to this one. This video (like all of your content) is fascinating and, being a long time viewer, I know how well you research the videos. My wife meets all of this criteria but struggles with imposter syndrome constantly. Even though she is constantly learning and improving her already incredible skill set. It would be interesting to find out if this is beneficial or a hindrance to the skills and knowledge obtained in the pursuit of overcoming the feelings.

  • My grandpa has been playing cribbage since he was a child and when he gets his hand he knows instantly what the best hand is and what to throw. And at the end of a round when you count your points he will just know what he has. And when you put your cards down to count he would just tell you the points your hand was worth. Crazy stuff.

  • Thanks for the effort! Suggestions for improvements: also state out the reason why Melton method of using high school grades and one aptitude test is effective PS: I thot the human was treated with electric shock too when they press the wrong button!

  • As a mathematician, these four factors definitely resonated with me and I think math is field that really encourages that deliberate practice. Great video!

    • @SebHow did it fail for you? Elaborate

    • @Seb why

    • @Hagen Farrell My thing right now in engineering tech I suck at math. I flunked a double Math class, tried but failed still made it through. I wanna get better but the thought of even doing math brings me great stress.

    • I think this whole video was moronic, contradicts itself, misses points and acts like humans are robots.

    • I was thinking this while watching the video. That and programming...

  • Brilliant. You just outlined a great model for AI/ML. As always, thank you for your continued insights and willingness to live on the edge with intellect. Cheers

  • Great professional promising project. The project was executed in a very manner and had a clear development plan. Without a doubt, this is one of the best projects out there, success always.

  • Hi Expert Softare Engineers, What is your experience applying these principles as an expert software engineer? What kind of help did you receive from your mentors? How did those who did it alone?

  • This is why in speed rock climbing championships the wall pattern of the rocks have never been changed so the athletes remember the pattern and don’t even have to think where the next rock is they already know. 👍👍

  • I love these insights, this is not our normal intuition. Human intuition is very often surprisingly poor.

  • Mathematician here. I did a lot of teaching when I was in grad school, and this video really hits all the nails on all the heads. Only in my last year did I figure out a concrete mantra to tell my students, encouraging them to not get discouraged by challenging problems because you only improve a skill by pushing yourself beyond what's comfortable. (The words I used were "engaging with uncertainty" rather than "deliberate practice", but they amounted to the same thing.)

    • i was lucky to learn at very young age that trial and error is the fastest way to learn , understand , improve . i love driving . driven trucks for 14 years . but in school before i dropped to low level . i had high level math and physics class. (sorry for my english). even for things like driving it's only possible to improve if you push beyond the limit . (do that in a safe place) otherwise how can you tell what's the limit. but without desire to understand the driving skills never improve. it kinda applies to everything. i simulate driving with a full simulator because it's impossible to predict other drivers with 100% accuracy. and my error rate is very low irl but not 0 . in simulation we just send it to speed up the learning curve . error rate pretty high but so is the learning curve . thinking this way has also made it easier for me to accept error from other people irl. but it seems like this way of thinking is going away.

    • @jack hartmann I'm sorry to hear that you had a less than ideal experience with some math professors. Many of us want our students to succeed just as much, and want to help ensure they understand the material, like your physics profs.

    • @Chris -0 if you're not comfortable doing something in mathematics, it's simply because there's a concept you don't understand. It's no different from feeling uncomfortable (or if you prefer, "challenged") with a certain chess puzzle to try to push yourself beyond what you can currently do comfortably (or without a challenge). Now, do you *need* to be uncomfortable doing mathematics? No, not if you're stopping at calculus, say. But if you want to continue learning it, then yes: it's part of pushing yourself beyond your current capabilities.

    • @Red Scotland you're reading an awful lot into the intention of what I wrote. I'm simply speaking from my own experience as both a math student and math educator, and (as pertains to the video) an expert in mathematics, or at least a certain area within mathematics.

    • @jack hartmann I agree! I have often felt the maths lecturers are... a little lost in their own world. Less able to see things from the perspective of a student or non-expert. Maybe because physicists might have to interact more with people in different disciplines (e.g. to use research equipment).

  • Wow, this was incredible. I often wondered why the "Experts" often seem to have no clue at all, and why people even use the term mockingly. This was a great insight!

  • Incredible video. I’d love a follow up discussion on exactly why some people seem to become proficient so much faster and earlier than others.

  • With these 4 memory patterns in mind, what professions do think closely meet these four categories?

  • I really thank you so much and I will forever appreciate this channel , you ve helped me and my family a lot in your videos, In your advice,lesson and funny words are really inspirational and helpful .my family and i have been able to minimal,conscious in spending,saving and investing wisely,I now earns every week you're sure a blessing to this generation,we really love you

    • I base in USA 🇱🇷 and I hear people are making a lot of cash from forex trading

    • I think this is the opportunity' for me to take a great step,

    • The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago,and the second best time is now this is not the first time I hear people talking about this man called Matthias

    • Good investment are life savers.

  • It makes sense because the first few years of our life our parents are always nearby watching, teaching and giving feedback.