The Universe is Hostile to Computers

čas přidán 31. 08. 2021
Tiny particles from distant galaxies have caused plane accidents, election interference and game glitches. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 200 people to sign up via brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription.

This video was inspired by the RadioLab Podcast "Bit Flip" ve42.co/BF -- they're brilliant science storytellers.

A Huge thanks to Dr Leif Scheick, Calla Cofield and the JPL Media Relations Team.

Thanks to Col Chris Hadfield. Check out his book: chrishadfield.ca/books/

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References:
J. F. Ziegler, "Terrestrial cosmic rays," in IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-39, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.1147/rd.401.0019. -- ve42.co/Ziegler1996

D. Binder, E. C. Smith and A. B. Holman, "Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays," in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2675-2680, Dec. 1975, doi: 10.1109/TNS.1975.4328188 ve42.co/Binder1975

Ziegler, J. F., & Lanford, W. A. (1979). Effect of cosmic rays on computer memories. Science, 206(4420), 776-788 ve42.co/Ziegler1979

Drury, L. O. C. (2012). Origin of cosmic rays. Astroparticle Physics, 39, 52-60. ve42.co/Drury2012

Hess, V. (2018). On the observations of the penetrating radiation during seven balloon flights. arXiv preprint arXiv:1808.02927. -- ve42.co/Hess2018

Carlson, P., & De Angelis, A. (2011). Nationalism and internationalism in science: the case of the discovery of cosmic rays. The European Physical Journal H, 35(4), 309-329. -- ve42.co/Carlson2011

Höeffgen, S. K., Metzger, S., & Steffens, M. (2020). Investigating the effects of cosmic rays on space electronics. Frontiers in Physics, 8, 318. -- ve42.co/Hoeffgen2020

Edmonds, L. D., Barnes, C. E., & Scheick, L. Z. (2000). An introduction to space radiation effects on microelectronics. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. -- ve42.co/Edmonds2000

NASA Mars 2020 website covering the specifications of the Perseverance Rover ve42.co/RoverBrains

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau report on QF72 -- ve42.co/ASTBQantas

Australian Government Australian Transport Safety Bureau summary on QF72 -- ve42.co/ASTBQantas2

Great Blog post about QF72 -- ve42.co/DempseyQantas

Michael Barr's report on the Toyota acceleration issue -- ve42.co/Barr2015

NASA's Report on Toyota -- ve42.co/NASAToyota

T. C. May and M. H. Woods, "A New Physical Mechanism for Soft Errors in Dynamic Memories," 16th International Reliability Physics Symposium, 1978, pp. 33-40, doi: 10.1109/IRPS.1978.362815. -- ve42.co/May1978

P. M. O'Neill and G. D. Badhwar, "Single event upsets for Space Shuttle flights of new general purpose computer memory devices," in IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1755-1764, Oct. 1994, doi: 10.1109/23.317386. -- ve42.co/ONeill1994

Wikipedia about radiation hardening -- ve42.co/RadHardening

Toward Monitoring Fault-Tolerant Embedded
Systems (Extended Abstract) -- ve42.co/Goodloe2009

Article about speed run -- ve42.co/BurttSpeedrun

Article about speed run -- ve42.co/BountySpeedrun

Article about redundant systems in spaceflight -- ve42.co/NASAComputers

Article about the PowerPC750 -- ve42.co/Wener-FlignerNASA

Fuglesang C, Narici L, Picozza P, Sannita WG. Phosphenes in low earth orbit: survey responses from 59 astronauts. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006 Apr;77(4):449-52. PMID: 16676658. -- ve42.co/Fuglesang2006

Good article about Cosmic Rays causing flashes -- ve42.co/AtkinsonEye

Good article about radiation resistance -- ve42.co/RoverResistance

Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Paul Peijzel, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
Animation by Iván Tello, Mike Radjabov, Fabio Albertelli, Jakub Misiek and Charlie Davies
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Filmed by Derek Muller, Raquel Nuno, and Emily Zhang
Edited by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev
SFX by Shaun Clifford
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Rover Footage From NASA/JPL-Caltech
QF72 footage from the Smithsonian channel cs-tv.org/tv/video-H3q5S9PCoJA.html
SM64 footage from ve42.co/pannenkoek2012
Music from Epidemic Sound
Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

Komentáře

  • From now on If my code runs weirdly in prod, I am blaming it on Cosmic event & Alpha particles.

  • The last BlueScreen part was really horrible since I am actually running macOS...

  • Awesome 🤘🏻, and following the click bait Idea why not rename the video "BSD secret revealed" or "blue screen of death forever"🤣

  • I wonder if this could explain why Women can change their mind completely and instantly for no reason......maybe their brains are more complicated than men's brains, therefore easier to manipulate via high energy charged particles. It would answer SO MANY questions.

  • Universe is hostile to computers Bitch Universe is hostile to Life itself!

  • This wasn't cosmic rays.... it was the Democrats practising how to rig the results.

  • you expect us to believe this bs?

  • So trump must be right

  • That why ecc memory is needed

  • I knowed this before, very nice video. Question: are thunders and lightings are same thing as we can see in cloud chamber? Are they particules that interact with oxygen or hydrogenium or other gas?

  • Just some fun facts, Voyager 1 and 2 which were launched into space 1977 have three dual-redundant computer systems. The same solar and cosmic radiation changes discussed in this video is what dictates atmospheric changes, ie. cloud formation and weather, here on Terra Firma as well as on some of the other planets in our solar system, there is not much we can do about it. :)

  • Nothing escapes the universe. We are all made up of particulates that were once a part of something else. Everything in the universe is either in a state of renewal or decay & we are hopelessly caught up in this universal timeless continual cycle. Therefore, we do not die, we just change form. If something has been thought of it is real because thoughts are real. We are spiritual creatures living a human experience. Now, the question is;”has intelligence always been, or is it a recent development in the aforementioned cycle? “

  • 9:02 Imagine if that energy value was in reality a glitch caused by another cosmic particle passing by

  • Next time my mum look at my grades, I'll know what to say

  • Low energy particle aka Jeb! 😉 😆

  • The Universe, assuming it truly exists, doesn't give a damn about your stupid and involutionary screens, full of cartoons and drawings for idiots of the word. Yours can no longer be called life. You are not living.

  • [comment]

  • great vid

  • I have got 3 blue screens of death over the last month, so it is cosmic ray? I learn something new everyday on this channel. Keep it up! :)

  • that thumbnail is so sick

  • Wow! I have learned so much from this video! Well done as usual. Thank you for the enriching role you are playing into millions of people's life!

  • The manufacturing site couldn't be in Colorado if it is downstream of the uranium site. The uranium site is in Utah and the river never again goes into Colorado after that site.

  • When the heaven basically votes for you🤣

  • Imagine Belgium going to the Poles.

  • The troll blue screen of death ending got me for a second haha

  • Imagine AI has took all over the world and u r the last living human left on earth at the gunpoint of a T-800 and suddenly one of the particle changes the T-800's bit and now he is friendly to you. Apart from the story above, I am wondering that is this the exact cause why my Minecraft world was not loading up?🤔

  • Elections with voting machines were made for the first time in the country in south America were I live. A country with a weak democracy. Im a software developer. Once had to check a vending machine and try to replicate an error: It accepted a bill denomination which doesn't exist. On a democratic election, vote counting should be able to scrutiny WITHOUT technical specialized knowledge. I'm really waiting for the Spanish version of this video/piece of art to share it with my friends. Cheers!

  • A supernova looks into the future and decided that it would be funny to mess up the flying machine of a sentient species so it exploded just in time

  • Hi!! 👋👋

  • I don't think that flipping genetic bits is that easy because say you flip a A to a G but the A was connected to a T so to turn it into a G you have to turn the T to a C.

  • I guessed you were gonna do that a second before it happened but it still almost gave me a heart attack.

  • Could this also cause cruise control to malfunction?

  • I comment to help statistics

  • 8:00 Wouldn't the alpha particles be much slower than the light of the sun anyway? He would probably have had to wait multiple days to notice the effect (were it caused by the sun).

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • Well my trust in autonomous driving just went out the window

  • At 15:14 you say the Airbus dove 200 meters in 20 seconds. That's a rate of descent (about 2,000 feet per minute) commonly used by jet aircraft descending from altitude, but those descents are started gradually so people don't feel the change (and the flight attendants don't call and complain). The problem in the Airbus incident (Quantas flight 72) is how fast the aircraft pitch was changed, which caused the estimated 0.8 negative g-force that slammed people into the ceiling.

  • So future students will say that "a cosmic ray fry their homework"?

  • At 21:46 I taught my pc really got crash - 🤣🤣🤣 - as I was watching this video in Full screen mode

  • Imagine your speedrun is on WR pace and it dies to alpha particle RNG

  • This was an amazingly well crafted and fascinating video.

    • it's actually somehow romantic, a particle emitted billion years ago, travelled light years and hit something as small as a transistor, changed a life. That's kind of destiny in a modern scientific world.

  • Blue screen of death

    • Supernova probably billions of years ago: Yeah I think Maria looks promising, but since I'm a cosmic event my vote is worth 4096 votes!

  • Great video man

  • 18:17

  • Why my mac and iphone never crash but my dell few times a week

  • computers have way more errors .. no one checks, hence why the stock market outstanding shares at any moment is never known. hence the "short Squeezes"

  • 4096 is a special number in computersz, also computersz become self aware quickly. they just dont communicate well directly. hey watch tho. sometimes they move.

  • space time is constantly changing, that is the problem with computers.. make them in shielded black boxes and put actual digital clocks or tic toc timersz, they stabilise time and hence space for CPUSz

  • i study this at school.....it was only one class and then put all that on a exam and forget about it it's good way to encourage people for get a grade but a bad way if you want to understand nature

  • i love chris hadfield

  • Me looking from phone about the blue screen of death: 🗿

    • The universe isn't just against computers, it's against humans as well. When these cosmic rays pass into the human body, they can cause different effects.

  • Except the one that don't exist... yet. Check mate.

  • Cosmic election fraud

  • Blue screen crash at the end gave me jumpscare lol

    • it's actually somehow romantic, a particle emitted billion years ago, travelled light years and hit something as small as a transistor, changed a life. That's kind of destiny in a modern scientific world.

  • Brilliant episode thanks from EGYPT

  • Imagine sending all your bitcoin to wrong adress because of cosmic particles swapped bits in your CPU and change target adress.

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • calculating cosmic ray its easy. Lol Lame

  • um years ago probably 10 years ago, one night when i was trying to sleep but couldn't so as usual i was daydreaming to fall asleep with my eyes closed i saw a sudden flash of light too bright, i opened my eyes panicking to witness nothing but my dark room, i asked my sister beside me if she saw it too but she didn't and now i'm wondering if,,,

  • Never flying in a plane again, thanks!

  • My theory is that the universe wanted maria to lead Belgium.

  • damn supernovas, stop Messing with our computers

  • Love the Blue screen of death at the end. lol my heart missed a beat...

  • or call it simply election fraud like in the US, see Videos by Mike Lindell showing the fraud electronically and manually. Naiv people still think the deep state would let the slaves let make choices....

  • Love the blue screen at the end! :D And also; thats the reason we are recomended to use seatbelts while seated in air planes?

    • So hypothetically, you could re-create that Mario Speedrun if you replayed long enough and got super lucky at that exact moment.

  • I have a question to which I have not had an answer and I want you to help me. I have bought a twin or Siamese banana in the market, that is, two bananas that have the same peel, I would like you to help me to know what probability there is of buying such a banana in the market and compare it with the probabilities of winning the lottery, between other Thanks and greetings from Colombia !!

  • I need one of these particles to help with my bank account balance

    • The universe isn't just against computers, it's against humans as well. When these cosmic rays pass into the human body, they can cause different effects.

  • I am in Singapore btw!

  • The crash simulation at 21:47 was so on point 👏👍

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • Amazing content, as a software engineer I find this topic absolutely mind-blowing. I really like how it shows that creating machines and making them do things is way more complicated than it looks because you need to consider so many things, even cosmic rays.

  • 13:03 Holy crap, I vividly remember my laptop blue-screening just a few days ago. I thought something was wrong with it but the next time I used it, it was perfectly fine. I can’t believe my PC just got hit with goddamn space bullets EDIT: This literally happened to me JUST NOW (17/10/2021 at 12:19 am at the time of edit)

  • And this is why you use ECC ram.

  • Dream didn’t cheat. It was the cosmic particals

    • Am I the only one that just smiles when they see Chris Hadfield talk about space? What a cool human being.

  • So hypothetically, you could re-create that Mario Speedrun if you replayed long enough and got super lucky at that exact moment.

  • Best video ever

  • Noted. Next time I commit any kind of digital fraud I will make it a power of 2

    • So hypothetically, you could re-create that Mario Speedrun if you replayed long enough and got super lucky at that exact moment.

  • Why would a blue screen of death on a spacecraft computer system be unrecoverable??? That's horrifying! So if there was only a central system that received a bsod, or if the various systems were compartmentalized and a critical, component system, like navigation, incurred a bsod, then in these circumstances, everybody would just be boned??? Why??? I am at a loss, honestly.

  • Me when I saw 4096: Ah yes, bitflip xD

  • Why is there 5.4k thumbs down? this is actually really good information. I like this channel.

  • Im really glad I'm watching this on my phone because of that ending xD Also I got really excited when you said that the vote difference was 4096 cause I recognized that it was a power of 2 ✨ and this video actually made me feel very special about getting blue screens of death

  • Good pitches, I am almost proud! Watch closely as how grandpa topples an empire by changing a "1" to a "0". - Rick and Morty S3E1 😂 😂 😂

  • I'ma flip a bit.

  • I thought I had BSOD what the hell, it looks so real.

  • No.. your brain is not safe from CGI!

  • Oh If the cosmic particle hits the transistor in charge of my account bank :(

  • What if radiation starts impacting programs of drones...nuclear missiles 💀

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • So far the best... no 1 video of veritasium 😀...many more to come...👍

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • No

  • Who's here after todays solar flare warning?

  • 3:07 Or.... do they? *hearing V-Sauce dramatic shift noise"

  • so a GOD particle from a central black hole hit the computer at the right time to give her 4096 votes ? i would say her win was well deserved. could go a stretch further and say it was God's will for her to win. Also explains a lot of election results from nowadays

  • Last Blue Screen !! was perfect :D hahaahah

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • Particle: Im boutta start this persons whole career

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • YO IF A COMPUTER CAN HAVE THIS HAPPEN WHAT MAKES OUR NEURONS ANY SAFER TOWARDS THIS KIND OF THING HAPPENING THEM? D:

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • "Yeah I won the Jackpot!" Casino Owner: "Sir that's more money than the entire financial system of America. "

    • The way I see it, even tho the result was "altered" Maria deserved to win. A billion+ years ago an exploding star was like "Allright Maria I'll do what I can for you, hope you win." And sent a particle on a collision course with that vote counter on a planet that was completely void of anything resembling human life. She got the universe's vote. Craziness.

  • 1:35 I thought Veritasium author managed to get into Belgium's elections (dude on the right)

    • The universe isn't just against computers, it's against humans as well. When these cosmic rays pass into the human body, they can cause different effects.

  • "He's not hacking, the universe just chose him."

  • IMHO this is why blockchain is save.. if smthng happen to the stored data.. all the other validator will overule it

  • Changed the tittle again

    • Supernova probably billions of years ago: Yeah I think Maria looks promising, but since I'm a cosmic event my vote is worth 4096 votes!

  • was there a high pitch sound throughout the whole thing or was that just me

  • I just recently discovered your channel but I am addicted. I have always enjoyed science topics and there are several channels on this topic that I follow but you have a way of talking about science that evokes an emotional response. I have laughed, cried and had a sense of awe many times and posted links to your videos on social media more than once already because I want more people to see your work. Thank you!